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Neither punishment nor reward stimulates students to learn more, say Virginia P. Richmond and James C. McCroskey of West Virginia University. Their research, involving 150 teachers and 2,600 students from seventh grade through college, evaluated five types of power used in classrooms. Two of these, the power of position and expert power, were neutral in impact. But the more that teachers are strong models for students and the more that students want to be like their teachers, the more students learn, they found.

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