Population: 14.2 million (1980), growing 2.7 percent a year.
Hispanic population: 2.98 million, or 21 percent.
Metropolitan populations: Dallas-Fort Worth, 3 million; Houston, 2.9 million; San Antonio, 1.1 million.
Urban-rural population ratio: 80-20.
Area: 267,338 square miles.
Fuel, nonfuel minerals: $33 billion (1980).
Agriculture: $10.1 billion production (1981); third in the nation.
Liquid hydrocarbon reserves: 9.8 billion barrels, 30 percent of US.
Personal income: $11,800 average, 2 percent higher than US.
Energy: 15.2 quads production (1980) declining 1.4 percent a year; now 21 percent of US.
Oil: 898 million barrels (1980); 30 billion proven reserves.
Natural gas: 6.9 trillion cubic feet produced (1980); 51 trillion cubic feet proved reserves.
Uranium: 5.4 million pounds (1980); 50,000 tons in reserves.
Lignite: 30 million tons in production (1980); 11 billion tons reserves.
Head of cattle: 13.6 million (1981).
Motor vehicles: 11.9 million, or 0.84 vehicles per person (1980).
Unemployment: 6.7 percent (August), 2-plus percent below US average since 1980.
Taxes: no personal income or corporate levy; mineral severance taxes account for about one-quarter of state revenues; 4 percent state sales tax plus possible 1 percent local sales tax; a franchise and ad valorem tax.
History: Six flags have flown over Texas since 1519: French, Spanish, Mexican , the Republic of Texas, Confederate States, United States. From 1836 to 1845, Texas was an independent republic, internationally recognized with its own currency. Sam Houston served as president. When it came into the Union, the state was granted the right to subdivide itself into five states at any time, if it wished to do so. It hasn't yet, with a tongue-in-cheek explanation that no one can agree who would get the Dallas Cowboys and the Alamo. Today, Texas ranks third among all states in population; second in foreign trade, construction starts, and retail sales; and third in personal income and bank deposits. Once producing 40 percent of the nation's conventional fuels, Texas is expected to consume more energy than it produces by about the year 2,000. The governor is elected to a four-year term. The Legislature meets every other year.
Sources: Texas 2000 Commission; 1982 Texas Almanac; Texas Industrial Commission; Texas Commerce Bank.