Highlights of '83 budget

* Total budget: $757.6 billion, largest in history.

* Total revenues: $661.1 billion.

* Size of deficit: $91.5 billion, largest ever except for estimated $98.6 billion in fiscal 1982.

* Spending increase: 4.5 percent, smallest in modern history.

* Taxes: No individual tax increases proposed, but would raise additional $12 .7 billion by closing corporate tax ''loopholes,'' plus new user fees totalling

* Defense: Record peacetime military budget of $215.9 billion, up 18 percent. Includes funds for deployment of cruise missiles, B1-B and Stealth bombers, and MX missiles.

* Social services: Cuts of nearly $13 billion would be made in specific benefit programs. Some proposed changes would make it more difficult for individuals to receive public assistance, for example, and $1.7 billion would be cut from the food stamp and other nutrition programs. But the costs of various so-called ''entitlement'' programs, such as Social Security, would actually increase. Consequently, the government will, in overall terms, be spending slightly more on social programs than in 1981.

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