Pakistan renamed the North West Frontier Province to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in a nod to Pashtuns, but the minority Hazars launched deadly protests. The Taliban has sought to supplant ethnic identity with pan-Islamist philosophy.
The latest attack in Pakistan's northwestern city of Peshawar killed 11 more people, prompting a local official to question the province's security defenses and suggest targeting the militants' bases.
The Pakistan offensive against the Taliban is making some progress, but the militants have struck back with a series of suicide attacks in the city of Peshawar. Is this the last gasp of encircled Taliban militants – or a continuing counterattack?
Pashtun residents say militants have imposed extremist views on the population, displacing centuries-old traditions.
A escalating feud could distract Baitullah Mehsud and his 10,000-plus men from fighting Western forces in Afghanistan.