Key decisions of this term show a willingness of some justices to reject political leaders' judgments.
The Supreme Court cut Exxon's payment far more than many residents had expected.
The historic 5 to 4 ruling says the right to bear arms applies to individuals.
The case involved a California man who killed his ex-girlfriend after she complained to police.
The ruling, a victory for Exxon, reduced the $2.5 billion punitive damages to about $500 million.
In a 5-to-4 ruling, the justices decide child rape isn't a capital offense.
They could help avoid judicial conflicts of interest.