Past cease-fires have allowed militants to regroup, but a recent deal in Bajaur may be more durable.
The Secretary of State also calls for a 'fresh start' with Russia.
If it is becoming a failed state, Indian officials wonder if they should take a harder – or softer – line with its neighbor.
Residents of Peshawar, the main city outside militants' stronghold in the tribal areas, are forming armed patrols to defend their villages – sometimes with official backing.
If militants are home-grown, domestic ambivalence about vilifying such groups could be diminished.
Frustration and fear is sparking opposition to plans that would nearly double the size of US forces there.
Washington is seeking to build the Pakistani state and its economy as a way to wean the country from Islamic extremism.