Tensions are spiking again, creating concerns about another conflict.
It is responsible for economically troubled South Ossetia and may have spurred the European Union to seek alternative sources of energy.
US counterinsurgency strategy must take account of Pashto-Islamist justice.
New NATO chief Anders Fogh Rasmussmen called for more European troops as violence in once-calm west and north complicate preparations for Aug. 20 elections.
The 60-page code of conduct, issued in the runup to Aug. 20 elections, urges fewer suicide bombings. US and Afghan officials say it's propaganda.
The US envoy said it was unclear if the military had defeated the Taliban in the region or simply driven them underground.
Soon after Kabul announced a truce in northern Badghis Province Monday, clashes erupted between insurgents and police.