Myers, author of such books as 'Hoops' and 'Monster,' recently published an essay lamenting what he saw as a lack of diverse characters in children's literature.
'Goldfinch' by Donna Tartt took the top prize for fiction, while 'Pulpit' by Doris Kearns Goodwin was named the best nonfiction work.
According to the National Book Foundation, the writer will be the first master of ceremonies to have published books in both the children's and adult fiction categories.
In a cycle seemingly as old as the literary world itself, Tartt's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel is now the subject of criticism after first experiencing major success.
According to Peter Finn and Petra Couvée's new book 'The Zhivago Affair,' the CIA believed the novel could be used as propaganda. '[W]e have the opportunity to make Soviet citizens wonder what is wrong with their government,' a CIA memo stated.
'Americanah' by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie took the prize for fiction, while 'Five Days at Memorial' by Sheri Fink secured the nonfiction prize.
Ed Norton previously directed the film 'Keeping the Faith.'
'Flora & Ulysses' follows a young girl and her sidekick, a flying squirrel, while 'Locomotive' tells the story of a railroad journey taken by an American family in the 19th century.