The armed separatism of the 1990s had largely faded away, but a peace accord never followed. Frustration had been mounting in recent weeks over an execution and an expansive policing law.
Some 35,000 Kashmiris fled from Indian-controlled Kashmir during the 1990s to settle in Pakistan, a country that has not yet granted citizenship to up to 40 percent of the migrants.
In an interview, a jihadi talks about why state-sponsored militants who once fought in Indian-controlled Kashmir are now joining the Taliban in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Muslim separatists celebrated the revocation of a controversial land-transfer decision, using the occasion to agitate for independence from India.