Spurred by the Fukushima accident, Germany vowed to phase out its reliance on nuclear power by 2022. Finding alternative energy sources is the new challenge.
In Germany, phasing out nuclear energy is not a question of if, but when. France, however, has seen only minor expressions of dissent about its reactors.
The German cabinet approved on Tuesday an overhaul to the country's energy production, but upset antinuclear activists by extending the life of the nuclear power plants.
The Russia-Ukraine gas war has left some downstream nations with only a mild shortfall, but has incited debate on how to secure energy reserves amid regional instability.