Some advocate inviting Russia to join. Russian President Medvedev wants a new security architecture that includes his country.
Human rights advocates charge that the trial was shoddy and followed a weak investigation.
Fearful that US failure there could unleash the Taliban and other Islamist insurgencies, Russia may help NATO open a supply line through former Soviet territory.
The three Pakistanis and one Saudi named belong to Lashkar-e-Taiba.
Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi, an operations chief for Lashkar-e-Taiba, was reportedly captured Monday in Pakistani Kashmir.
In a move to avoid a second deadly battle in a Palestinian refugee camp, some groups have taken a rare step away from Islamist militancy.
Decades of neglect, outdated technology, and an ineffective conscript system reduced the capabilities of the Russian Army.