The case of a mother sending her adopted Russian child back could slow or even stop US-Russia adoptions. Russia was the No. 3 country for US international adoptions last year.
International adoption has fallen sharply under tougher scrutiny caused by issues like Haiti's post-quake orphan scandal as well as stricter global regulations.
Experts in child kidnapping and global adoption hope that the Haiti incident involving American Baptist missionaries provides lessons for future disasters.
The US government has expedited orphan transfers after the earthquake in Haiti. But aid groups worry about trafficking children whose parents or other relatives still may be alive.