The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established in 1993 to investigate war crimes that took place during the Balkan conflicts of the 1990s. It was the first international court established by the UN and the first international court since the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials into World War II crimes.
The ICTY has charged more than 160 people and convicted more than 60 for war crimes. The most high-profile case was former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević, the first European head of state to be indicted. His alleged crimes spanned over three countries – Kosovo, Croatia, and Bosnia – and in Bosnia it included charges of genocide. A Guardian obituary described him as Europe’s “chief menace” and said his actions embodied the “dark side” of the continent.
Mr. Milošević was never sentenced because he died in 2006 while in detention at the Hague, although dozens of those who worked with him were either charged or are still awaiting court decisions.