Syria's largest city is contested by various rebel groups, including anti-US jihadists. A UN envoy is trying to broker a temporary cease-fire so that humanitarian aid can reach civilians.
For years, Ahmet Davutoglu worked to foster friendly ties across the Middle East. Experts say that quickly changed in the aftermath of the Arab Spring uprisings in 2010.
Under President Erdogan, Turkey has taken a more active role in the Middle East and raised alarms it may no longer be a reliable Western ally.