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Payback, apparently, for the Western alliance's recent expulsion of two alleged Russian spies.
But the spy spat is part of a bigger issue.
Moscow's displeasure appears mostly focused on NATO-sponsored war games in Georgia, which opened on Wednesday. The military exercises began despite the defections of four Russia-friendly countries that were to have participated and a major Russian PR offensive aimed at convincing the Western alliance to cancel them.
It's the war games issue, some experts say, that could turn a fairly routine spy scandal into a possible deal breaker for Russian-NATO relations.
"These [espionage] things are always going on," says Pyotr Romanov, a prominent political commentator with the official RIA-Novosti news agency in Moscow. "But this coincides with a tense moment in relations, so it's a complicated mix with many ingredients coming to a boil."
Russia's Foreign Ministry on Wednesday summoned Canadian Ambassador Ralph Lysyshyn to inform him that the two Canadians – employees of the NATO Information Office in Moscow – were being expelled in response to "an unfriendly act on the part of NATO in relation to staff at the Russian mission to NATO."
The Western alliance ejected two Russian envoys from its headquarters in Brussels last week over the alleged illicit acquisition of thousands of classified documents. On Wednesday, NATO issued a statement that Moscow's measures were "unfortunate and counterproductive to our efforts to restore our dialog and cooperation with Russia. Thus NATO very much regrets the Russian action and does not consider there to be any justification for it."
The cold war-style tit-for-tat espionage accusations are serious – and unexpected – vexations for a relationship that was supposed to be getting back on track after several months of deep freeze following Russia's lightning war with Georgia in August.
Russia has repeatedly demanded that NATO cancel the month-long exercises, to be held at a former Russian military base in eastern Georgia. About 1,000 troops representing a dozen NATO states participating in the Partnership for Peace program – a loose grouping for potential members of the alliance – are participating. In recent weeks, Russian friends Armenia, Kazakhstan, Serbia, and Moldova have pulled out of the exercises to avoid offending Moscow.