Prospect of show trial stirs some Russians' memories of Stalinism
Some Russian activists are drawing parallels between a potential 'mega trial' for leftist leader Sergei Udaltsov and Stalin's show trials in the 1930s. But the comparison remains controversial.
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References to the 1930s Stalin-era show trials, which smashed any semblance of opposition to Stalin and cowed Soviet society for generations, have been increasingly invoked by worried human rights activists and opposition leaders since last summer's Pussy Riot trial raised fears of an arbitrary state using criminal sanctions to intimidate political opponents.Skip to next paragraph
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But the parallel is deeply controversial. Many observers reject loose analogies with the Stalin era as wildly exaggerated, arguing correctly that it diminishes the extremes of Stalinism, and misrepresents the realities of Putin's Russia, which, though increasingly authoritarian, cannot be usefully compared to the state absolutism and mass terror that characterized the USSR in the 1930s.
Nevertheless, many people whose memories of the Stalin period remain fresh are deploying that comparison today, arguing that they see similarities in the state's actions with respect to Pussy Riot and the looming Udaltsov case that suggest a worrisome continuity.
And it's not only the liberal intelligentsia invoking such historical sensitivities to dramatize their points. Many religious conservatives who defended the harsh sentences meted out to the Pussy Riot women – and not only in Russia – argued in a similar vein that the feelings of Russian Orthodox believers, traumatized by Soviet-era persecutions, were deserving of special protection.
"A lot of things going on today remind us of Stalin times, even if most things are very different," says Yury Schmidt, one of Russia's leading defense lawyers.
"Society has changed a lot, and I do not believe that people can be frightened to death the way they were then, and yet our authorities do seem to be preparing to hold this trial, though I am not at all sure they can find the actors and manage the process successfully.... I was born in 1937, have seen such things in my life that I've lost all fear. After I defended [disgraced oil tycoon Mikhail] Khodorkovsky, I thought the authorities had lost interest in me, but lately I begin to feel that I am in the focus of someone's attention again," he adds in an ominous tone.
Sergei Strokan, a columnist with the daily Kommersant, says a key reason Stalin keeps cropping up in Russian discourse is that the country never underwent a thorough process of de-Stalinization; hence the fear of its revival is ever present.
"Of course it's unreasonable to see the ghost of Stalin inhabiting Putin's body, and even more so to see the spirit of Stalinist repression against the church parading in the form of Pussy Riot," he says.
"But it's not amiss to note that the state still has supreme power in this country, and it still claims absolute priority over the lives of individuals. This is the quintessential idea of the Soviet state, and it lives on today. It is that the state is equivalent to the nation; hence, if you attack Putin, you're attacking Russia.... We do see the creeping revival of that old system, and it's something to really worry about," Mr. Strokan adds.
Vladimir Pribylovsky, director of the Panorama Center, an independent political consultancy, says the public atmosphere in Russia is already dramatically changed from a year ago, and a big show trial may deeply intimidate society.
"We have several dozen people who can be described as political prisoners, and it looks like some big trials are being prepared," he says.
"People are going to be afraid to talk to foreigners, just as in the past, and among left-wing activists we already see paranoiac moods taking shape.... This is a long-term trend, and it's going to impact our society in unpredictable ways," he adds.