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Even amid eurozone crisis, Italians chafe at deeper cuts

Italy is under pressure from the European Central Bank to adopt austerity measures, but Italians suffering financially resent the government's austerity plan and tax increases.

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During his second term in 2004, he even declared at a press conference that he felt "morally authorized to evade taxes," as they were too high. At the time, the average citizen faced a 42 percent tax rate, one of the highest among developed nations.

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But seven years later, during his third term, Mr. Berlusconi is raising taxes to 44.5 percent.

That troubles Bruno Paolillo, a schoolteacher in Rome who took part in the Sept. 6 protest.

"I don't really understand how they can think to boost the economy by raising taxes," he says. "All I foresee is poor people becoming even poorer, and those who already evade taxes keeping doing so. Moreover, you don't need to be an expert to understand this will hurt consumption."

The government counters that it has no choice. With a public debt close to 120 percent of its annual gross domestic product (its total output of goods and services), Italy has been put under pressure both by markets – Standard & Poor's downgraded Italy's credit rating outlook last May – and by the European Central Bank, which agreed to buy Italian bonds, but only on the condition that Italy urgently adopt reforms to balance its budget.

"The question is how to achieve this balance," says Tito Boeri, a professor of economics at Bocconi business school in Milan. "The government could either cut spending or raise taxes, and it chose the latter."

Berlusconi's plan consists of four major points: raising the value-added tax (essentially a sales tax) from 20 percent to 21 percent; hiking income taxes by 3 percent for the wealthy, defined as those who earn more than €300,000 (about $417,000); raising the minimum retirement age for women from 60 to 65; and cutting funding for ministries and other governmental institutions.

But Mr. Boeri says that higher taxes account for more than 70 percent of the budget plan, while lower spending accounts for less than 20 percent. Boeri believes the government should have taken a "more courageous stance" in cutting social security and other forms of welfare rather than raising fiscal pressure.

"They are literally strangling the middle class," he argues.

In the past, the Italian electorate has been more concerned with services than taxation: "I suspect Berlusconi decided to increase tax revenues [rather than cut spending] because he feared upsetting voters," he says.

Yet, as the protests demonstrate, the prime minister still could not dodge social unrest.

For his part, Bianchini puts the blame on out-of-touch politicians. "They don't even know what a grocery store looks like," he grumbles.

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