After months of strikes, university students in France ask for their grades
France's education minister: 'There will be no bachelor's degree awarded for striking, no master's for petition-signing, no doctorate in obstruction.'
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As the end of the school year approached without the government budging on the essentials of the reform, sharp divisions emerged. On many campuses, students voted to resume classes in raucous ad-hoc meetings. But diehard protestors at some schools, among them 11 Toulon University students who declared a hunger strike on Monday, refused to back down. Police were called in at several schools to separate those who wanted to continue the blockade and those who did not.Skip to next paragraph
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University presidents and government officials said the only alternative for many universities is to offer intensive makeup classes this summer and schedule exams for the fall. Higher Education Minister Valérie Pécresse promised on Monday that an extra month of financial aid would be available to scholarship students to cover the extra study time.
In cities across France, groups of professors and students, calling themselves the Circle of the Resolute, have held almost daily demonstrations against what they call the "commercialization" of higher education. If some students are upset at the possibility of losing a semester of study, in their view, it is the price of solidarity.
"The movement is there to defend the value of your diploma, not to destroy the semester," says Grégory Marchand, a student union leader who marched in the courtyard of the Louvre Museum last weekend. "And anyway, it's the government that's wrecking the semester."
Higher education a basic right?
But enthusiasm for a prolonged fight seemed to be flagging.
At the University of Paris X in Nanterre, on the western outskirts of the capital, students have been trying to come to a collective decision for several weeks about whether to abandon their blockade. Although 32,000 students are enrolled, only about 150 showed up for an assembly the question last week.
They straggled into an auditorium past a banner proclaiming that "the government won't back down, so we won't either." A young woman passing out leaflets for a far-left party sang the Internationale.
Inside, student union leaders accused the Sarkozy government of trying to "privatize" universities and exploit worries over final exams to split the protest movement. Boos and catcalls greeted the speakers who wanted to end the strike as well as those who wanted to continue.
At one point, Véronique Rauline, an English professor who has been on strike, took the floor to urge students to rally behind her idea of awarding a blanket passing grade to everyone enrolled at the university. "Let's force the institution," she pleaded. "But we can't do it with assemblies of 150 people, but with 1,500 people."
Higher education is considered a basic right in France. Public universities, which charge just a few hundred dollars a year in fees, accept anyone who has passed the high school baccalaureate exam. They are also regarded as a public service, much like the post office. The arguments against university autonomy are much the same as the arguments raised against privatizing the French postal service – that is, that some people might end up getting better service than others.
"They want to destroy the public sector," says Julia Aller, a freshman who is studying to be an arts promoter at the Sorbonne III University in Paris. She has been on strike for months but wants the school to give her full credit for the missed semester. "We haven't had class," she adds, "so they can't give us exams."
The chaos over exams has obscured the larger question of the future of state universities, according to many in the academic world.
Last week, 29 of the country's best-known scholars and professors published a scathing analysis that began with an admission that the value of a public university diploma was declining dramatically. "The French university is not only in crisis," the group wrote in an essay in the newspaper, Le Monde. "A number of its components are in their death throes."