International aid for Burma (Myanmar) faces funding crunch
About $1 billion is needed over three years, according to a new assessment. But the junta's lack of reform is raising doubts about long-term assistance.
International efforts to help millions of people in Burma (Myanmar) left homeless and destitute by a lethal May cyclone are running low on funds, exposing political divisions among donor nations toward the isolated country's military rulers.Skip to next paragraph
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Ending a three-day visit to Burma, John Holmes, the United Nations head of humanitarian affairs, said Thursday that he was encouraged by signs of recovery such as house repairs and field plowing in the disaster zone, but underlined the urgent need for more aid. Earlier this month, the UN raised its appeal for the first year of relief operations to $481 million, up from $201 million.
An assessment released this week by the UN, the Burmese government, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations estimates that the combined cost of rebuilding houses, schools, and other infrastructure, as well as providing food aid and other essential services, is about $1 billion over three years. With 75 percent of hospitals and clinics in ruins and 450,000 houses completely destroyed, the report said the scale of the damage is roughly 2.7 percent of Burma's annual economic output and comparable in scale to the 2004 tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia.
But whereas Indonesia flung open its doors after the tsunami to international relief teams and allowed close monitoring of aid deliveries, Burma's junta has kept a tight grip on cyclone relief. Some aid agencies say they have carved out a space to work effectively. But others have run into bureaucratic roadblocks that critics say are discouraging some donors and raising doubts about long-term recovery programs.
In the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis, the US, Britain, and other countries with economic and political sanctions on Burma were among the main providers to the international aid effort. As the emergency phase gives way to reconstruction, though, temporary waivers on sanctions are likely to end, while Western donors have begun pressing Burma for political concessions.
At this week's ASEAN summit in Singapore, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice chided Burma's glacial pace of reform, saying its road map to democracy was "going nowhere." ASEAN issued its own, somewhat pointed, criticism of its member state. The US has also tried to ratchet up pressure in the UN Security Council ahead of a visit next month to Burma by a UN political envoy who was appointed following last year's violent suppression of peaceful protests led by Buddhist monks.