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At Japan biodiversity meeting, access to resources divides rich and poor

As talks on halting the global loss of species got underway Monday in Japan, long-standing disagreements over how to split up the economic benefits those species generate are threatening to stall negotiations.

By Winnie BirdContributor / October 21, 2010

Some delegates to the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, or COP-10, huddle during lunch break on its opening day in Nagoya, Japan, Oct. 18.

Kazushige Fujikake/Kyodo News/AP

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Nagoya, Japan

Representatives from 193 countries gathered in Nagoya, Japan, Monday for the opening of a two-week United Nations Conference on Biodiversity described as a “Kyoto Protocol for all living things.”

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As talks at the Conference of the Parties (COP-10) on halting the global loss of species got underway, longstanding disagreements between rich and poor countries over how to split the economic benefits those species can generate loomed large. Think genetic resources rather than physical products like bushmeat or timber.

For example, under a benefit sharing agreement, a Canadian biotech company that collects plant samples in the Amazon and develops a medicine from them would, in principal, be required to share the profits with the Brazilian government and any local people who traditionally used the plant. The company would also need to get permission from the government before taking or using a native plant.

National laws governing such transactions exist in some countries. But so far, members of the convention have not been able to agree on an international system to ensure fair benefit sharing. Resource-providing countries say that’s allowed widespread “biopiracy."

Fair use?

One well-known biopiracy case occurred in 1996, when a South African research organization patented an appetite-suppressing compound found in a local plant called Hoodia, then signed licensing agreements with several pharmaceutical companies to market the product without compensating the San people who had used the plant for centuries to prevent hunger during hunting trips (the San were eventually compensated, after a public outcry over the case).

Now, representatives of resource-rich but financially poor countries say it’s time to address fair use. Seventeen such “mega-diverse” countries including Brazil, Kenya, and China are home to 70 percent of the planet’s species. They are pushing for the adoption of a “Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing,” or ABS, at the 10th meeting of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity underway in Nagoya.

That could interfere with the delegates’ other task at the meeting, which is to agree on a 10-year strategic plan to slow loss of species.

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