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More Filipinos question birth-control taboo

A bill to provide contraception is the first to reach House debate in this largely Roman Catholic country.

By Jonathan AdamsCorrespondent / March 10, 2009

Social impact: Children at a dump in Manila Bay. Backers of the reproductive health bill say it would curb poverty.

Jay Directo/AFP/Newscom



The battle over a ground-breaking reproductive health bill is heating up in the Philippines, a country where the influential Roman Catholic Church's opposition to artificial birth control has long held sway.

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A measure to provide government-funded family planning, contraceptives, and sex education has made its way onto the House floor for debate – the furthest any such draft legislation has ever reached.

The bill's passage isn't certain. But proponents say its traction so far shows that the political clout of the Roman Catholic Church is on the wane.

"The influence of the Catholic Church has steadily weakened, just like in other countries," says Congressman Edcel Lagman, the bill's key House sponsor, in a phone interview. "People are now more independent in their attitudes and their beliefs, and the ultraconservatism of the church doesn't jibe with the progressive ideas of the people."

Backers of the bill say it's needed to prevent illegal abortions and help curb poverty by addressing overpopulation. But the church sees artificial birth control as immoral and has long prevented any efforts to provide government funding for such methods. It only supports "natural" birth control, such as the "rhythm method," by which women avoid having sex on the most fertile days of their monthly cycle.

The church's allies warn that the bill could be a first step toward the legalization of abortion. A small group of them is holding up the bill in questioning on the House floor. Mr. Lagman and other sponsors hope to clear that hurdle when Congress comes back from break in mid-April.

About 81 percent of the Philippines' 96 million people are Catholics. In theory, they're bound to obey church leaders' authority. But a Pulse Asia poll conducted last fall found that 63 percent support the reproductive health bill, with 8 percent opposing (the rest were undecided).

In the Philippines, the church has long had its way on issues by threatening to withdraw electoral support from candidates. But now, politicians and Catholic laypeople are increasingly willing to buck the church leadership.

"The fact that this bill has gotten so much momentum indicates that politicians are no longer scared by the church's threats," says Ramon San Pascual, director of the Philippine Legislators' Committee on Population and Development Foundation, Inc. "Some cultural change is taking place."

The bill received support from a surprising quarter last fall: 69 professors at the prestigious Roman Catholic Ateneo de Manila University broke with their own church to sign an unusual open letter backing the legislation.

In an interview in December, two of the professors said the bill would put the Philippines in line with other predominantly Roman Catholic countries, including Italy, Ireland, and Mexico.