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Land disputes trigger old racial tensions on Nicaragua's Mosquito Coast

An indigenous community took 12 non-indigenous people hostage, claiming they won't release these 'colonists' until their land is returned to them.

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The combination of Mestizo encroachment and Sandinista megaprojects has many of the country’s indigenous doubting that the promise of autonomy institutionalized in the 1987 Law of Autonomy for the Atlantic Coast, will ever be fully realized. Though the law is considered an exemplary progressive piece of legislation – it set up autonomous regional government councils that grant land-use concessions – like many Nicaragua laws, its existence on paper doesn’t necessarily translate to reality. Critics claim autonomy has been corrupted by political parties that have bought allies, infiltrated the regional councils and divided the indigenous populations to prevent genuine self-governance.

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For many, the long-stated promise of autonomy is something that should be pursued more aggressively, and has played a role in the Mestizo-Miskito tensions in Lapan.

“Our people have been too pacified by religion and a leave-it-to-God attitude,” says Gilberto Joseph, a Creole activist in the South Atlantic Autonomous Region who sells revolutionary T-shirts demanding “Autonomy Now for the Nicaraguan Caribbean Coast.”

“Autonomy of our people is freedom and self-determination,” Joseph says in Creole. “For the government, that’s a no-no, and so they try to break us up … [But] people fight for less than that!”

On Feb. 25, the indigenous community’s traditional Council of Elders, the self-proclaimed leaders of the Communitarian Nation of the Moskitia, jumped in the fray by calling on all indigenous communities to “organize against the aggression and neutralize the actions of invasion, occupation, destruction of forests, land sales, and illegal concession that the State of Nicaragua is promoting as a new form of neo-colonialization.”

The Council of Elders is suspicious that the “outside interests” reach all the way to Venezuela. The ancestral group is denouncing the “powerful business interests of the Venezuelan ALBA [Bolivarian Alliance of the Americas group] of Hugo Chávez that is claiming ownership of our natural resources.”

“The mestizos are invading and destroying our land; they want to turn it into a desert like they’ve done on the Pacific coast,” says Rev. Hector Williams, the Wihta Tara, or great judge, of the ancestral Communitarian Nation of the Mosquita, referring to the felling of trees in the region. “This is causing the people to rise up,” Reverend Williams says.   

Francis, the YATAMA leader, says an ugly racial conflict is a threat, as non-indigenous continue to stake claims on indigenous land.

“They keep advancing on our lands and cutting our trees. They already have us pushed up against the ocean, and now they want to put us in the ocean,” Francis says. “But we are not fish to live in the ocean.” 

– A version of this article first ran on the author’s website, The Nicaragua Dispatch.

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