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Fuel prices threaten key Canadian lifeline: ferries

Sky-high fuel prices have seen a 30-percent rise in fuel surcharges for the Newfoundland ferry since July 2007.

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Earlier this summer, the Nova Scotia government stepped in with C$4.4 million ($4.26 million) to save the seasonal high-speed service between Yarmouth, N.S., and Portland and Bar Harbor in Maine – an essential means of getting US and Ontario tourists to the region.

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"The routes would not be feasible without government assistance," says Donald Cormier, vice president of operations at Bay Ferries, the Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, company that runs all three Nova Scotia services. He says increased fuel prices and a downturn in American travel to Canada had forced both routes into the red.

While the subsidies for the Saint John ferry continue through early 2011, it is not clear if the Maine routes – which have existed in some form for more than 50 years – will resume next year. Mr. Cormier declined to comment, but the company recently announced it would close those seasonal routes eight days early.

Until the late 1990s, most of these routes used to be operated by Marine Atlantic, the government-controlled corporation that operates Newfoundland's lifeline to the Canadian mainland. For nearly a decade, Cormier says, Bay Ferries ran them without public subsidy, saving taxpayers "hundreds of millions."

But now that fuel prices have undermined profitability, some think the government should reclaim routes. "When costs rise and traffic falls, we don't go tear up the bridges and roads," says Mr. Theriault, who adds that propping up a private service will always be a greater political challenge than simply subsidizing a government one. "The best thing that could happen is for Marine Atlantic to take it back under their wing."

A spokesperson for Canada's transport ministry, Maryse Durette, says the government is studying the problem and that "anything is on the table."

But with sky-high diesel prices, even public companies like Marine Atlantic have been unable to provide affordable service, angering Newfoundland officials. They point out that under the 1949 agreement by which Newfoundland joined Canada, the federal government has a constitutional obligation to maintain the service, and that the firm's mission statement promises it will be "reliable, courteous, and cost-effective."

The 110-mile ride from North Sydney to Port aux Basques, N.L., currently costs C$35.75 per passenger, C$101.50 per car, and C$550 for a 75-foot truck, up by almost 30 percent since July 2007.

"The Marine Atlantic service is, in effect, a continuation of the Trans-Canada Highway," says Ms. Whalen, who has asked Ottawa to freeze rates. It "has to be cost efficient in order to make our province an attractive place to do business and competitive with … provinces that don't rely on ferry travel."

Ms. Whalen said that Newfoundland & Labrador's ferry services face the same challenges, but that her government has reduced rates over the past two years.

Marine Atlantic's shareholders – the federal and provincial governments – currently pay for the first C$26 million in fuel each year, and additional costs are passed on to customers, according to company spokesperson Tara Laing. The fuel surcharges reflect the increased costs.

For his part, Mr. Nelson of the regional trucking association argues that the Newfoundland run – essentially a floating bridge – should be free to users. "It's part of the federal highway system," he says. "It should be treated so."