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Five years after death of John Garang, a divided Sudan wonders: What if?

Thousands gathered today at the grave of Sudan leader John Garang de Mabior, who was killed July 30, 2005, after signing a peace deal between North and South. Would Sudan still be divided if the tenacious rebel was still alive?

By Alan BoswellContributor / July 30, 2010

John Garang, leader of the Sudan People's Liberation Army is surrounded by soldiers as he wave at the crowd in this Jan. 22, 2005 file photo. Thousands today gathered at the grave of Garang, who was killed July 30, 2005, after signing a peace deal between North and South.

Karel Prinsloo/AP/File


Juba, South Sudan

Crowding the tops of the city’s roofs, vehicles, and trees, a sea of faces struggled to catch a glimpse of the US-educated African bush guerrilla.

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John Garang de Mabior – the burly, coal-skinned Sudanese Dinka known simply as “Dr. Garang” to most of his followers – had arrived in Sudan’s capital, Khartoum, having signed a peace deal ending the two-decade rebellion he led in the nation’s marginalized south. Some one million turned out to greet him.

Less than one month later – on July 30, 2005 – the tenacious leader was Sudan’s new vice president, and dead. Five years later, the optimism spurred by the peace deal has largely faded and Sudan’s split appears imminent. A January 2011 secession referendum in the south is expected to result in either the country’s division, renewed war, or both.

Indeed, even the scene at Garang's grave today was starkly secessionist, with thousands of southern Sudanese gathering to pay vigil and wave southern Sudanese flags. Hundreds of southern police officers and troops marched in the streets of Juba.

Many still wonder: What if Garang had not died in a helicopter crash that fateful July day?

Africa’s largest country has always been one of its most troubled, plagued by peripheral rebellions since before its 1956 birth. Garang thought he had the cure. He called it the “New Sudan.” Democratic, secular, and united, Garang’s dream nation would share power and wealth across its vast landscape and diverse peoples, both Christians and Muslims, “African” and “Arab.” Sudan did not have a “Southern problem” or a “Darfur problem,” Garang argued.

He thought the nation had a rotten core which needed replacing. It was a task which was to consume his life.

From Sudan to Iowa to Ethiopia

Born in the south’s Jonglei state, John Garang’s path split early from his cattle-herding peers. A restless youth, he made his way to Julius Nyerere’s socialist Tanzania, where he received schooling alongside other future contemporary revolutionaries: Uganda’s Yoweri Museveni, Rwanda’s Paul Kagame, and the late Congolese leader Laurent Kabila.

He then left for the United States, where he found his way to Iowa’s bookish Grinnell College. The Midwestern state’s cattle and crops must have felt familiar; he later returned to earn his master’s and PhD at Iowa State University.

In 1983, with a flimsy 1972 peace deal collapsing, Garang was serving in the Sudanese Army. He and fellow Army conspirators mutinied, finding haven in neighboring Ethiopia, and for the next two decades he led the burgeoning rebellion – dubbed the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement – with iron-fisted determination.