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Rwandan refugees pushed to return to a home they consider unsafe

Uganda and the UNHCR want nearly 18,000 refugees in Uganda – most of whom are Hutus – to go home by Friday. But few are complying, afraid the legacy of the 1994 genocide still lingers.

By Ben SimonContributor / July 30, 2009

This May 2009 photo shows Rwandan refugees in the Nakivale camp in Uganda. Some 18,000 Rwandan refugees in Uganda have been givena deadline for returning to their country, now considered stable by the international community.

Walter Astrada/AFP/Newscom


Nakivale Refugee Camp & Kampala, Uganda

At the Nakivale refugee camp, a vast stretch of rolling, fertile land in southwest Uganda, some 8,000 Rwandan refugees were recently given a deadline.

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Claiming that Rwanda, 15 years after the 1994 genocide, is now safe for everyone, the United Nations and the governments of Uganda and Rwanda have encouraged all 17,000 to 18,000 refugees in Uganda to go home before July 31.

"We have agreed that the time is right," says Stefano Severe, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) representative in Uganda. "We have to bring this process to a close."

But many of the Rwandan refugees in Uganda – most of whom are Hutus who fled Rwanda in the wake of the 1994 Hutu-led slaughter of more than 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus –­ are skeptical of the assurances given by the Tutsi-dominated government, and say it's not safe to return.

Jehozo Ishimwe is one of them. "I am not feeling OK," says Ms. Ishimwe minutes before she boards a bus destined for Rwanda. "To go and live under [President Paul] Kagame's government is the end," she adds.

Ishimwe, whose infant is strapped to her back, says that her father served in the army of the Hutu-led government that was toppled by Mr. Kagame's Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) rebels in 1994, and that her family members in Rwanda are frequently harassed by the new regime. During her most recent visit to Rwanda, she says, her older brother was arrested, prompting her to go back to Nakivale.

Asked why she'd decided go home again, she says: "I am going by force."

Officials have said the repatriation campaign is voluntary, but it is unclear what will happen after July 31.

The UNHCR says that anyone with refugee status can remain in the camp and receive benefits, though its offer of "facilitated repatriation," which includes free transport and nonfood assistance upon arrival in Rwanda, will end Aug. 1.

But those who refuse to repatriate before July 31 could lose their refugee status, according to Tarsis Kabwegyere, Uganda's Minister for Refugees. "When conditions no longer justify you being a refugee, then you can become a worker," Mr. Kabwegyere says.

Financial burdens fueling repatriation

For UNHCR and Uganda, the urgency fueling this repatriation campaign is partly financial.

"This community is still costing the international community and the government funds, which are not so easy to come by," says Mr. Severe.

In December, UNHCR requested $31 million to fund its operations in Uganda, but had to adjust to a $5.8 million shortfall.

Donor countries have also expressed uncertainty regarding future funding because of the global financial crisis, according to UNHCR deputy Uganda representative Nemia Temporai.

Supporting the Rwandan refugees costs the organization roughly $1.2 million per year, and maintaining an openended facilitated repatriation program adds to that cost. Kabwegyere says that his ministry's resources are also strained following in the influx of 40,000 Congolese refugees after fresh fighting broke out in Congo in August.