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Global warming threatens Australia's beach life

Parliamentary report in Australia shows 700,000 coastal homes may be at risk if global warming continues and sea levels rise. Local conflicts are brewing over residents who want to build seawalls and town planners who want to move houses away from Australia's beaches.

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Byron council – which believes such walls could seriously degrade a popular public beach – has a policy of “planned retreat,” requiring people to relocate as the coastline recedes. No one has been forced to move yet, but the ban on building barriers against the encroaching sea makes that a real possibility in the future. In more developed areas such as Sydney, meanwhile, the policy is not an option for local authorities. “In the urban environment, there’s really nowhere to retreat to,” says Andy Short, director of the Coastal Studies Unit at Sydney University.

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In Collaroy, the council has bought and demolished 10 properties on the beach strip. They include a house next to Mr. Wright’s block, purchased for A$3 million ($2.73 million). The site is now grassed over, and partly occupied by a small parking lot, the building having been demolished because of the threat of the advancing ocean.

Like other high-risk sites, Collaroy's moves are largely a legacy of bad planning. When property boundaries were established more than a century ago, they were fixed too close to the shoreline. Back then, town planners were unaware of the risks. However, development continued apace on the shifting sands even after the waves claimed seven beach shacks in 1944-45, and another in 1967. During ferocious storms two years ago, two apartment buildings nearly collapsed.

The beach is lined with protective piles of boulders and concrete slabs. But, like Mr. Wright, locals are not concerned about the future. “Everyone here loves the beach, so the benefits outweigh the scare factor,” says Lauren Warne, a student. Seated on the dunes, gazing out to sea, Robyn Friend says: “If it’s going to happen, it’s going to happen. There’s not much you can do.”

Calls for coordinated action

Nationally, though, there is a new urgency to the climate change debate, which until recently focused largely on the increased risk of drought and bushfires. The recent parliamentary report, with its warning that more than 700,000 coastal homes are vulnerable, made for sobering reading.

The report also deplored the “piecemeal” approach being adopted by local and state governments – a problem acknowledged by Alan Stokes, director of the National Sea Change Taskforce, which represents coastal councils. “We need a consistent and coordinated national policy framework,” says Mr. Stokes.

Sydney University's Professor Short says that Australians need to rethink the way they live. “We can still live in the coastal zone, but not right on the coast,” he says. “We will see erosion which exceeds any past erosion events. Beaches will retreat to a degree they have never done in the past.”

And what about areas like Collaroy? “If nothing is done, more houses will be washed away. These houses will just one by one fall into the sea."