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House vote to boost sci-tech visas lays bare political rifts on immigration

The House approved a bill Friday to redirect 55,000 available visas to foreign students studying science, engineering, and math in the US. Some Democrats backed the GOP bill, but the vote shows why immigration is such a thorny issue for Congress.

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“The diversity issue is an important one for our country, but there are different ways to achieve the goal. They wouldn’t even discuss those other alternatives,” Rep. Zoe Lofgren (D) of California, who has taken part in bipartisan immigration negotiations in the past, said in an interview. “You can’t come to an agreement if you refuse to have a discussion.”

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But second, and more central, Democrats say that Republicans' unwillingness to raise legal immigration levels by even 5 percent (the increase of 55,000 STEM visas without the elimination of the diversity visas) represents an unworkable position going forward. With more than 10 million illegal immigrants in the US today, it's simply unfeasible to offset every new green card when the immigration system admits a few more than 1 million people per year, Democrats say.

Under such a system, they argue, it will take years to bring illegal immigrants into legal status, even before other changes such as adding STEM visas or making special provisions for agricultural workers.  

Republicans “have essentially signed a Grover Norquist-style pledge to [anti-immigration groups] that says ‘no new green cards,’ ” says one senior Democratic House staffer, referring to the no-tax-increases pledge signed by more than 90 percent of congressional Republicans.

Rep. Raul Labrador (R) of Idaho disputed this characterization. “I don’t think anybody today talked about a cap.... You just heard five people talk about immigration reform” at a post-vote press conference of Republican members, “and none of us talked about a cap.”

The US does not have an official cap, but through various avenues 1 million immigrants have obtained permanent resident status each year since 2005.

If Republicans are open to Democratic aims to let more legal immigrants into the US, taking up immigration reform bit by bit could crater the reform effort, liberals fear. A comprehensive bill would require compromises from both parties on border security and potential citizenship for illegal immigrants, for example. If those contentious issues were to be taken up separately, they would never advance, Democrats fear.

However, Democrats have themselves carved out one piece of the immigration reform pie: helping young illegal immigrants who've been raised much of their lives in the US. Democrats have pushed the DREAM Act, a stand-alone measure that would offer a path to citizenship to several million young undocumented immigrants who have obtained at least a high school education or are serving in the US military.

Leadership at the US Chamber of Commerce, which would like to see a full-throated immigration reform bill, has expressed doubts about the Republicans' preferred piecemeal approach. “I’m afraid if we do one or two” pieces of immigration reform, said Tom Donohue, CEO of the US Chamber of Commerce, in a talk with reporters Thursday morning, “then we’re liable to find it more difficult to do an overwhelming bill.”

Asked about particular issues that might gum up a big immigration deal, Mr. Donohue said: “You know what they are.” 

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