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Can police collect DNA when someone is arrested? Supreme Court to decide.

At issue in the case the Supreme Court considered Tuesday is whether collecting DNA from an arrestee without first obtaining a warrant is an unreasonable search under the Fourth Amendment.

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Both federal and state laws bar agencies from using stored DNA samples to analyze data for anything other than the identifying information, Mr. Dreeben said. An individual would retain a reasonable expectation that the rest of the DNA sample would remain private, he said.

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According to Kagan, verifying a fingerprint match can take a matter of minutes, while Maryland’s DNA tests take on average 11 to 17 days to complete.

Dreeben responded that the expectation is that within two years, police will have DNA analyzers in police booking stations capable of completing an identification within 90 minutes.

Not all justices were skeptical of Maryland’s DNA statute. Justice Samuel Alito observed that police had long been permitted to routinely take fingerprints of suspects upon arrest, and it wasn’t clear why the same couldn’t be done with DNA swabs.

“I think this is perhaps the most important criminal procedure case that this court has heard in decades,” he said.

“The attorney for the state began by listing a number of crimes just in Maryland that had been solved using this,” he said. “So this is what is at stake: lots of murders, lots of rapes that can be solved using this new technology that involves a very minimal intrusion on personal privacy.”

Kannon Shanmugam, the lawyer challenging the Maryland statute, countered that DNA testing involves a far greater intrusion into privacy than fingerprinting.

DNA contains significantly more information and significantly more personal information than a set of fingerprints, he said. In addition, no one has an expectation of privacy in his or her fingerprints, which are left on surfaces wherever the person goes. So unlike taking a buccal swab, collecting fingerprints at the police station is not considered a search for purposes of the Fourth Amendment, he said.

Forty-nine other states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the federal government filed briefs in support of Maryland’s DNA collection statute.

The debate over DNA collection stems from the case of Alonzo Jay King, who was arrested in Wicomico County, Md., in April 2009 after he was accused of pointing a shotgun at a group of people. Police charged him with first- and second-degree assault.

Under the Maryland DNA law, as a recent arrestee for a serious crime, Mr. King was required to submit to a buccal swab from his cheek to collect a DNA sample.

The sample was sent to the national DNA database, where it matched DNA collected at the scene of a 2003 rape in Wicomico County, Md.

King was charged with rape and robbery in the 2003 unsolved crime. He was later convicted of first-degree rape and sentenced to life in prison.

King’s lawyer challenged the collection of the DNA evidence, arguing that police should have first obtained a warrant. The trial judge rejected the argument, but the Maryland Court of Appeals reversed. It ruled the police must first obtain a warrant before collecting DNA from an arrestee.

If King wins at the Supreme Court, it won’t necessarily mean an end to DNA testing of those within the criminal justice system. King’s lawyer concedes that the state has the power to collect DNA without a warrant from convicted criminals since a convicted criminal has a diminished expectation of privacy, below that of an arrestee.

A decision in the case is expected by June.

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