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NASA's planet hunters enlist backyard astronomers

By / March 5, 2009

Amateur astronomer John O'Neill gets set to take an image of the night sky during a star party in the Florida Keys. With a computer, a telescope, the right imager, and the right software, amateur astronomers can join the hunt for planets orbiting other stars.

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NASA's Kepler mission to spot Earth-like planets in Earth-like orbits around sun-like stars (one more "like" in this sentence and my artistic license will be revoked) is reaching out to amateur astronomers for help.

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During a pre-flight press briefing a few weeks back, the mission's lead scientist, William Borucki, noted that amateurs with the right equipment and a lot of patience could help top off Kepler's anticipated discoveries. (You can read more about the mission here and here.)

As Dr. Borucki explains it, some planets around these stars will be more like Neptune or Jupiter and larger. Kepler may only snag one or two transist during its mission, rather than the three per planet it's aiming for. One transit is tantalizing, but not enough to claim: "I've got one!"

If Kepler ends with a batch of stars that have only one transit to their credit, that represents unfinished business.

So, Borucki says, "we're going to take the data that we didn't have confirmations for, we've only seen one transit or two transits, and ground-based people, whether amateurs or whether professionals, can follow up and find that third transit and make a discovery. Many discoveries will be made with the data we give to the public after the mission ends."

That may be a long time to wait for a crack at planet-hunting, so in the meantime, astronomer Greg Laughlin has a suggestion. Pitch in on Transitsearch.

For the story behind the program, you can read more here. But the thumbnail: Amateurs using readily available telescopes, software, and CCD cameras on the back of their 'scopes are hunting for transiting planets around some of the nearest, brightest stars.

They know which stars to watch and when to look because the presence of a planet and its orbital period already are known, thanks to professional astronomers who have detected a planet's presence by measuring the slow-mo rumba the planet imparts to the spectrum of its host star.

But this so-called radial-velocity technique will tell astronomers only so much about a planet -- its orbital period and mass. The transit approach -- measuring how the starlight dims as the planet swings across its surface, adds more. The depth of dimming yields an accurate measure of the planet's size, and the transit also reveals the tilt of the planet's orbit with respect to the star's equator.

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