How are planets born? LkCa 15 could give scientists first-ever peek.
A newly discovered planet-candidate circling star LkCa 15 could provide astronomers with a first-ever look at a gas-giant planet as it grows. It could help prove or debunk current theories.
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When the star's disk reappeared at about 46 AU, roughly the orbit of Pluto, it showed a very pronounced inner edge – a hallmark of planetary bulldozing.Skip to next paragraph
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For their part, Kraus and Dr. Ireland used one of the larger, twin Keck telescopes, also on Mauna Kea, to observe the star. They used techniques to freeze as much as possible the twinkling effect that the Earth's atmosphere imparts to stars.
This allowed the two to spot the pinpoint of light they identify as the protoplanet, as well the dusty disk surrounding and feeding it. The protoplanet and its disk orbit in the middle of the gap that stretches from 5 to 46 AU.
The duo calculates that the planet has six times Jupiter's mass. Based on the protoplanet's brightness, color, and the presence of its surrounding tutu of material, the object "has likely been caught in the epoch of assembly."
For Benjamin Bromley, an astrophysicist at the University of Utah who uses computer models to study solar-system formation, Kraus's and Ireland's observation holds the potential to provide a powerful test of two competing ideas for how gas-giant planets form.
The standard explanation is a kind of boot-strap approach where dust grains gather into clumps, the clumps' gravity attracts more clumps, and a rocky protoplanet builds. Once it reaches about 10 times Earth's mass, its gravity is strong enough to draw in surrounding gas. The process can take a million or so years to occur.
A more recent alternative mirrors ideas of star formation. In this case, gravity from the star and the motion of its surrounding disk by themselves introduce instabilities into the disk. These form relatively dense regions whose gravity triggers something of a runaway collapse of the surrounding material into an orbiting orb. It's a quick process and one that tends to leave no residual disk once it's finished, Dr. Bromley explains.
Given the star's 2 million-year age, the protoplanet's behavior "is really what you'd expect right at this moment" under the standard, clump-accretion explanation.
"This is really exciting," he says.
Kraus and Ireland remain a bit cautious, noting that for now, the object is pegged as a "likely" protoplanet. Confirming its planetary nature will take additional work. Kraus says that the next steps are to observe the system again during the next year or two for signs that the pinprick of light and the dust surrounding it are co-orbiting the star.
In addition, the configuration of the gap in LkCa 15's disk implies the possibility of other planets, which new generations of ground-based and space-based telescopes could spot, he says.
Yet Dr. Bromley notes that one can't rule out the single planet as the sole occupant of the void. The rest of the material that should be there could either be tied up in icy objects too cold to observe or in asteroid-like planetesimals that also fall into an observational no-man's-land – for now. Rocky inner planets of the future?
"Just because there isn't much to see doesn't mean there isn't a lot happening," Bromley says.
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