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Stardust-NExT to make Valentine rendezvous with comet Tempel 1

NASA sent its Deep Impact probe to comet Tempel 1 in 2005, but failed to get the data it wanted. Now, with Stardust-NExT returning this Monday, NASA gets a second shot.

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Two close encounters with Jupiter toward the middle of the 20th century tweaked the comet's orbit again, giving it a return time of once every 5.5 years. The comet orbits the sun twice for every orbit Jupiter makes. And it moves from near Jupiter's orbit at its greatest distance from the sun to near the orbit of Mars as it swings behind the sun and heads back on its return trip.

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The Stardust-NExT spacecraft has piled up mileage in it own right, logging some 3.7 billion miles since its launch as the Stardust mission in February 1999. Stardust sped through the cloud of dust and gas that surrounds the comet Wild 2 in January 2004, scooped up samples of the detritus, then headed back to Earth. As it sped past Earth in January 2006, it dropped off a capsule containing the samples, delivering the first pristine cometary material humans have ever had a chance to examine.

On to Tempel 1 ... again

That still left NASA with "a perfectly working spacecraft" and enough fuel to reach another target, Dr. Veverka says. With data from Deep Impact in hand, the team went to NASA and successfully pitched a plan to extend the mission to give comet Tempel 1 another look.

Since then, ground-based astronomers as well as researchers using the Hubble Space Telescope have been monitoring Tempel 1 to glean its rate of spin, frequently tweaked by the jets of gas it spews as it heads toward the sun and warms.

The goal is to predict an encounter time when the orientation of the nucleus with respect to the sun and to the spacecraft is most likely to "put the high-dollar real estate in sunlight facing the spacecraft at the flyby," explains Steven Chesley, a researcher at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., and one of the mission's scientists.

Fortunately, he says, Tempel 1 displays relatively easy-to-predict behavior, allowing the team to set up the spacecraft's rendezvous without having to make adjustments through fuel-costly maneuvers.

Whether controllers have set the mission up so the sun will shine where researchers hope it will remains to be seen.

If it turns out they miscalculated a bit, no worries, says Dr. Chesley.

"The alternative is not so bad. We'll get fantastic views of never-been-seen-before cometary terrain," he says.

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