Of Albanian descent, Ismail Pasha was Viceroy (Khedive) of Egypt from 1963 until he was removed at the will of the British in 1879. While in power, he modernized Egypt in an effort to bring it closer to Europe, putting the country in debt. AKG-Images/Newscom/File
Tewfik Pasha, Viceroy (Khedive) of Egypt from 1879 to 1892, reluctantly took the reins from Ismail Pasha at the behest of Britain and France. He fought the anti-foreign sentiment of some of his countrymen while complying with the British. AKG-Images/Newscom/File
Pictured is a caricature of the relationship between Abbas II, the last Khedive (1892-1914) of Egypt, and the British occupying power. Britain deposed Abbas in 1914 for his support of the Ottomans in World War I, making Egypt a British protectorate. AKG-Images/Newscom/File
Fuad I became Sultan of Egypt in 1917, then proclaimed himself King in 1922 after the British granted Egypt independence in the wake of the revolution of 1919. He reigned until his death in 1936. AKG-Images/Newscom/File
King Farouk succeeded his father, King Fuad, in 1936. The revolution of 1952, led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamel Adbel Nasser, forced his abdication. k09/Zuma Press/Newscom/File
President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser (r.) holds hands with Nikita Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR. Nasser became the second president of Egypt in 1952 and held power until his death in 1970. Vasily Yegorov/ITAR-TASS/Newscom/File
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (l.), President Jimmy Carter (c.) and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on the north lawn of the White House after signing the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel on March 26, 1979. Bob Daugherty/AP/File
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (r.) and Vice President Hosni Mubarak observe a military parade just before soldiers opened fire from a truck, killing Sadat and injuring Mubarak in Cairo on Oct. 6, 1981. Sadat was president from 1970 until his death. Bill Foley/AP/File
Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak addresses the People's Assembly in Cairo, during the swearing-in ceremony on Oct. 14, 1981, that followed the assassination of President Anwar Sadat. Bill Foley/AP/File
Gamal Mubarak, son of President Hosni Mubarak, speaks at a press conference in Cairo in 2007. In light of the anti-Mubarak Egyptian protests of 2011, Gamal said he will not seek the presidency, and has announced his resignation from the ruling party. Nasser Nasser/AP/File
Sam LaHood, son of US Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood, heads the International Republican Institute in Egypt and was recently kept from boarding a flight out of Egypt.
ByBen Hubbard, Associated Press
Egypt has banned the son of U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood and a number of other Americans from leaving the country as tensions rise over moves by Egyptian authorities to restrict the work of international rights organizations.