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Asia trumping US on science R&D

Federal funding for research has been falling in real terms. Is the nation’s economic edge at stake?

By Peter N. SpottsStaff Writer for The Christian Science Monitor / October 9, 2008

Japanese scientist Makoto Kobayashi smiles during a news conference in Tokyo after learning that he won the 2008 Nobel Prize for Physics for discoveries in sub-atomic particles.


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Tallying this year’s Nobel Prizes so far, it’s been a respectable year for US-based scientists. Four shared the prestigious awards – three for chemistry and one as part of an international trio for physics.

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As congratulations pour in, however, some science-policy specialists in the United States see troubling signs that federal support for research – measured by checks written rather than checks promised – may be weakening.

To those involved in federally funded research, their work represents a kind of intellectual infrastructure that, if allowed to erode, can begin to undermine the country’s economic competitiveness.

The immediate concern is the continuing resolution the president signed Sept. 30. Congress punted final passage of the federal budget to next March. Except for the Defense Department, other federal agencies responsible for performing or funding research must hold spending at or below fiscal year 2008 levels.

These are trying fiscal times, acknowledges Pat White, vice president for federal relations at the Association of American Universities in Washington. Deficits and the federal debt are soaring. Unavoidable spending on programs such as Social Security, as well as interest on the federal debt is rising. And now the government is undertaking a $700 billion rescue package for the financial industry.

The budget’s math “is such that it’s going to be very hard to make any sort of dramatic new investments” in research, Mr. White says. “On the other hand, over the last five years we always find ourselves at the last minute fighting at the margins.” For instance, in fiscal year 2008, budget negotiations bogged down over $22 billion Congress added in nondefense discretionary spending, out of a $932 billion discretionary budget, he explains. The R&D portion of that $22 billion – at least among the government’s biggest R&D players –  was about $3 billion. Either way, “that’s not a lot of money,” he says.

Beginning with fiscal year 2005, federal spending on research has fallen off after accounting for inflation. The decline may advance into fiscal year 2009 with an expected revision to inflation figures, according to a recent analysis by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The drop-off comes after a five-year sustained increase, driven largely by money Congress pumped into the National Institutes of Health (NIH).