A better way to improve safety at garment factories in Bangladesh
President Obama is pulling US trade privileges for Bangladesh to force improved safety at garment factories. But this will cost poor workers their jobs and could undermine stability in this fragile democracy. Better to support a Bangladeshi-led reform agenda – with benchmarks.
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The May pact commits participating retailers to conduct independent factory inspections and to pay for needed repairs and improvements. With the announcement of the safety pact, the international retailers framed the debate and challenged the manufacturers, the workers, and the government of Bangladesh to address the problems that led to the Rana Plaza collapse, the Tazreen factory fire last November, and other preventable tragedies in recent years.Skip to next paragraph
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They generated momentum for overdue changes to safety standards, provided resources to make immediate renovations, and bolstered economic confidence by committing to a long-term partnership with Bangladesh. Now US retailers, who did not sign on to the May pact, are apparently close to an agreement to improve textile-factory safety in Bangladesh.
But the retailers alone cannot make factories safe and prevent the next tragedy. Nor can outside governments, even the United States. The ultimate responsibility for ensuring that textile exports continue to fuel Bangladesh’s development rests with the Bangladeshis themselves.
Even 10 years ago not all textile factories in Bangladesh were unsafe and unsanitary places to work. I visited factories that met construction and safety standards, with well-lit, well-ventilated workspaces and adequate restrooms. Bangladeshi stakeholders can restore the image of the “made in Bangladesh” label with a three-pronged initiative.
First, reputable Bangladeshi textile firms, represented by the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association, need to set and enforce credible safety and workplace standards. They must press for legislation to beef up government inspection services and start outing and expelling fly-by-night textile companies that flout association and national standards.
Second, the government, which has already announced plans to raise the minimum wage and improve labor conditions in the industry, should launch a broad initiative to bring Bangladesh into compliance with international workplace standards.
And third, the garment manufacturers association and the retailers should conduct a campaign to educate workers about safety standards and ensure “whistleblower” protections so that violations can be reported without reprisals. Factory workers should have a role in ensuring their own safety.
There is ample precedent for a homegrown solution to the factory-safety issue that is supported but not coerced by international actors. Bangladesh pioneered micro-finance, a system of small loans mostly to women that has changed lives in Bangladesh and in other developing countries.
And starting in the 1980s, a quiet family-planning revolution has taken place that has reduced the fertility rate in Bangladesh from 6.4 in 1980 to 2.2 in 2011. This remarkable achievement was the result of appropriate government policies, social consensus that included many Muslim clerics, and a cadre of women educating other women.
Pulling the plug on US trade privileges could create a chain reaction that would cost poor Bangladeshis their jobs without necessarily leading to better conditions for workers. At the same time, it could well undermine political stability and economic growth in this hopeful, fragile democracy.
A better option is strong US economic and political support for a Bangladeshi-led reform agenda – with timetables and benchmarks – around which other governments and international retailers could rally. Those women I used to see walking to work deserve a job and a safe workplace, not one or the other.
Mary Ann Peters was the US ambassador to Bangladesh from 2000 to 2003. The views expressed here are her own.