US should replace drone strikes in Pakistan with outreach to tribal areas
The Pakistani Taliban's vow to avenge the death of its No. 2 leader – killed by a US drone strike Wednesday – and boycott government peace efforts shows the ineffective nature of US drone policy. The US must stop the strikes and build up tribal regions in Pakistan and other countries.
(Page 2 of 2)
For instance, the prominent Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani, who led armed campaigns against Iraqi and Iranian governments in the mid-20th century, would often tell the US government that the Kurds were “ready to become the 51st state,” and he “trusted no other major power.” In 1946, as the US ambassador in Tehran would later recall, “When I asked where he thought of going, he said, ‘We’d like to go to the United States.’ I asked, ‘Do you mean all the Kurds? That means many hundred thousand.’ He nodded affirmatively.”Skip to next paragraph
Gallery Monitor Political Cartoons
Subscribe Today to the Monitor
Prior to 9/11, US assistance landed on the side of persecuted Muslim tribes – such was the case for the Pashtun of Afghanistan facing a Soviet invasion, the Kurds in northern Iraq being slaughtered by Saddam Hussein, Somalis facing starvation from war-fueled famine, and the Albanians of Kosovo being massacred by Serbian forces.
After President Bush declared the war on terror in the wake of 9/11, the US allied with the agents of the tribes’ destruction – central governments. The aim was to help these governments combat terrorist elements on their periphery who the US saw as allied with Al Qaeda – but the effect was also to alienate entire regions.
In Waziristan in the tribal areas of Pakistan, the heart of the US drone campaign, innocent Pashtun have lived under the constant threat of deadly strikes, afraid to send children to school, go to market, gather for funerals, or even sleep near one another at night, according to studies. Hundreds of thousands have fled the region.
Drones have also created historic levels of anti-Americanism. In Pakistan, where Pakistanis claim the war on terror has killed nearly 50,000 people since 9/11, many of the leading candidates in the May election ran anti-drone campaigns, including winner Nawaz Sharif. Pakistanis say their national sovereignty has been compromised; they feel emasculated in their inability to stop the intrusion.
While Obama has taken an important forward step by scaling back drones, the drone is just one small part of a much larger problem between governments and tribes on the periphery. Even if Obama ordered the drones stopped today, tribal regions would still bear the brunt of violence from government military attacks, suicide bombings, and traditional tribal rivalry.
What is needed most to restore stability and peace are long-term and far-reaching political measures on the part of central governments – with strong backing from Washington.
However, in order for the process of exploring this different paradigm to begin, the drones must cease. The US can, and must, play a leading role in tribal regions.
Washington should work with allied central governments within traditional tribal structures to help maintain law and order in tribal areas, rather than continuing even limited drone strikes or military actions that alienate entire tribal populations. It should support education and other development projects. Above all, it should support a fair and just civil administration for these beleaguered people. It is in this way that the men of violence can be effectively contained and eventually rendered powerless.
America can again become a beacon of hope, and douse the flames of terrorism at the same time.
Amb. Akbar Ahmed is the Ibn Khaldun chair of Islamic studies at American University and the former Pakistani high commissioner to the United Kingdom. This commentary is based on his recent book, “The Thistle and the Drone: How America’s War on Terror Became a War on Tribal Islam.”
Harrison Akins is the Ibn Khaldun chair research fellow and assisted Ambassador Ahmed on his book.