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'Silent raids' and E-Verify immigration enforcement are destroying US farms

Enforcement-only immigration policies will further devastate immigrant communities, ravage labor-intensive agriculture, and take away countless jobs beyond the farm sector. If elected officials want US fruit and vegetable farms to survive, they need to implement smarter immigration reform.

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Broader economic impact

Should these farms fail, it’s not just immigrant workers or farm owners who would suffer. Their tax payments and social security contributions would dwindle. And, because on-farm jobs (mostly held by unauthorized immigrants) support off-farm jobs like shipping, packing, and processing (mostly held by US citizens), each farm closure would further depress citizens’ employment opportunities. Of the estimated 75,000 jobs supported by these 1,700 northeastern farms, less than one-third were inside the farm gates.

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Growers fearful of losing experienced workers have few options. They can either sell their land – likely to grain producers who employ far fewer people – or transition away from labor-intensive crops. One upstate New York vineyard owner told me, “We are gradually reducing our grape production, because of the uncertainty of investing $15,000 per acre and not knowing you’ll have the labor.”

Either selling land or shifting crops means fewer farm jobs and reduced domestic fruit and vegetable production. This makes no sense at a time when unemployment tops our country’s economic concerns, government is calling for more fruit and vegetables on our plates, and consumers are clamoring for local produce.

Shortage of labor

The aforementioned vegetable farmer, who has already shifted land to grain production, stated simply: “If E-verify were made mandatory, a For Sale sign would go up outside.” Like many other growers nationwide, her repeated efforts to hire US citizens for seasonal picking have failed; were she subject to E-Verify, she has no idea where to get enough work-authorized employees to sustain her business.

Stephen Colbert learned the same lesson when he took up the United Farm Workers’ “Take Our Jobs” challenge by working for a day on a New York farm – the union’s national effort to place US citizens in seasonal farm labor last year attracted only nine citizens or legal residents, most or whom quit soon after beginning work.

Growers would accept increased workplace enforcement if they could count on having enough authorized workers. But, they argue, the existing guest-worker program, H-2A, is rife with red tape producing costly delays. H-2A only accounts for roughly three percent of this country’s hired farm laborers, while undocumented immigrants constitute between half and three-quarters of the total. Growers thus call for an expanded, streamlined guest worker program.

But as farmworker advocates countered at a recent House hearing on H-2A, guest worker programs have been riddled with exploitation – including wage theft, discrimination, physical and sexual abuse, and blacklisting workers who complain about conditions. A 2007 Southern Poverty Law Center report on guest worker programs was tellingly titled, “Close to Slavery.”

A way to meet needs of growers, workers, and economy

Still, the growers’ and farmworkers’ positions are not irreconcilable. In fact, their advocates have been joined at the hip in lobbying efforts since 2003, when they forged a bipartisan compromise bill, which garnered a remarkable 63 Senate co-sponsors, called AgJobs (The Agricultural Job Opportunities, Benefits and Security Act). AgJobs would expand H-2A, improve worker protections, and offer legalization for farmworkers already here.

In 2011, the tea-flavored House of Representatives has taken AgJobs off the table and rendered radioactive any legislation including a path to citizenship. But conservative legislators should reconsider. Growers advocating a balanced approach to immigration reform are often conservatives themselves, who side with Republicans on most issues, but feel alienated by the party’s immigration approach.

Elected officials need to find a solution that works for growers, farmworkers, and the economy. Otherwise, instead of ushering in a bountiful harvest, summer will come to stand for lost possibility on America’s farms.

Daniel Altschuler is a Copeland Fellow at Amherst College and has written extensively on immigration politics. To read more of his writing, visit danielaltschuler.com.

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