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Opinion

Fairness – we're wired for it

The debate over what’s fair isn’t just political rhetoric. It defines not only our individual interactions but also the very fabric of society.

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The principle of equality is embedded in our basic human rights, from "equal protection of the laws" to "one person, one vote." More important, we are all more or less equal in terms of our basic survival needs. Any society that systematically shortchanges these needs puts its social contract at risk. Think of Egypt and other Middle Eastern oligarchies where uprisings have erupted recently.

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Beyond providing for the basic needs of our people, which many studies show has broad public support, the principle of equity is also vitally important to the practice of fairness. Aristotle defined equity as "pro­portionate equality" – rewards that are weighted according to what people "deserve" through the use of their talents, efforts, and achievements. Capitalism, for example, is often touted as an economic system that rewards merit, though there are various distortions of the ideal model in practice.

However, equality and equity are insufficient to uphold the social contract. Fairness must also include reciprocity. Reciprocity puts a counterweight on the scale. It obligates us to pay for the benefits we receive from society. As the great Roman legal scholar Cicero put it, "There is no duty more indispensable than re­turning a kindness." Without reciprocity, a society would devolve into a pattern of "free-loading" and exploitation. Taxes and public service obligations are two of the ways we have devised for closing the loop.

More than political rhetoric

Fairness is an ongoing issue, not just in our individual interactions but also in the very fabric of society. Ab­so­lute fairness, of course, is an un­attainable ideal, but it remains a goal worth striving for. In fact, we are wired for it. As the distinguished biologist Garrett Hardin pointed out, "The first goal of [social] justice is to create a modus vivendi so that life can go on, not only in the next few minutes, but also indefinitely into the future."

Our innate sense of fairness is about more than simply political rhetoric. It's a compass that points us in the right direction.

Peter Corning is the author of "The Fair Society: The Science of Human Na­ture and the Pursuit of Social Justice."

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