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Opinion

High-stakes hinge moment for Hezbollah and Lebanon

Facing pressure over the Hariri assassination, Hassan Nasrallah and his Hezbollah organization are growing anxious.

By Bilal Y. Saab / August 11, 2010



College Park, Md.

Could this be the beginning of the end of Hezbollah?

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For the first time since its official emergence in 1985, Lebanon’s powerful Shiite “Party of God” is feeling nervous about its future as an autonomous and untouchable politico-military organization.

It is not a potential war with Israel that is making Hezbollah anxious, though it is doing everything it can to prevent one from happening. Instead, what deeply worries Hezbollah is a string of events that could unfold at home following an expected indictment of the group – or at least rogue elements within it – by the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL). The tribunal is charged with prosecuting those responsible for the killing of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on Feb. 14, 2005.

Two options

Assuming the prosecution is not derailed and no deals are made, Hezbollah has two options if it is indicted. It can accept the charge and try to limit the costs; or it can react violently and suffer the consequences of such action. Neither bodes well.

Based on recent statements of Hezbollah chief Hassan Nasrallah, Option 1 is most likely off the table.

Nasrallah has emphatically denied any involvement of Hezbollah in the murder. He has categorically refused to hand over any member of his party to any international body, calling the tribunal nothing but “an Israeli project” that seeks to smear and target “the resistance.” On Monday, in a two-and-a-half hour press conference, he accused Israel of Hariri’s assassination, presenting “evidence” that included footage from Israeli spy planes of routes used by Hariri.

He has also rejected talk of any deal that would accuse some “undisciplined” elements inside his organization but leave the leadership untouched. Sensing that there is an international conspiracy against Lebanon and his party, Nasrallah is in no mood to compromise.

An angry ultimatum

This leaves Option 2, an angry reaction by Hezbollah that could turn ugly and cause widespread violence in the country.

Imagine the scenario: Nasrallah would hold another press conference saying that the government of Prime Minister Saad Hariri (Rafik’s son) has an ultimatum: Either disregard the tribunal’s charge or face Hezbollah’s wrath.

Mr. Hariri would either stall indefinitely or refuse to comply, arguing that he can’t interfere with an independent tribunal. Hezbollah’s ministers would immediately leave or suspend participation in the cabinet. (They could also bring down the cabinet in order to annul its responsibilities toward the STL). The party’s base would hold large demonstrations and sit-ins, causing political deadlock in Beirut and possibly sectarian tensions throughout the country – a situation not unlike the political crisis that exploded into violence in May 2008.

Sunni-Shiite polarization would reach its climax, possibly though not necessarily manifesting itself in several armed confrontations across multiple regions. Not known for armed combat, the Future Movement, the largest Lebanese Sunni grouping, which is headed by Hariri, would choose non-violent confrontation. That would allow more extremist and uncontrollable Salafi jihadi elements sympathetic to Al Qaeda to emerge and fight the “infidel” Shiites.

Lebanese state institutions would gradually collapse and the Lebanese Army would remain neutral. The result would be a return to a state of anarchy, in ways similar to the bleak civil war of 1975-90.

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