Humane groceries: Can you trust labels like 'cage free'?
Activists are trying to help consumers find the most animal-friendly products – and the stores that sell them.
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But any amount of maltreatment that goes on in meat and dairy production is unacceptable, Dr. Cherney says. "We can have a humane, sustainable system, even in light of rising food prices and more people in the world to feed."Skip to next paragraph
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In fact, meat production can't be sustainable without maintaining humane standards, so long as science is carefully applied to the definition of "humane," she says.
Certain standards, such as those pertaining to confinement and the ban of antibiotic treatments, for example, don't enter into the humane question. WSPA agrees, saying that "natural" and "organic" labels have no bearing on humane conditions.
"There's an entire scientific field designed to look at various aspects of behavior, and physiology, and production, to try to optimize production systems," says Joy Mench, animal-science professor at the University of California, Davis. She explains that it takes a delicate balance of health, behavioral, and economic considerations to achieve humane conditions for domesticated animals being raised for food.
"The trick," Dr. Mench says, "is to figure out what behaviors are important and that animals really want strongly to perform regardless of the circumstances they're in." For example, according to Certified Humane labeling program, chickens don't need access to the outdoors, but they do require nest boxes and aren't allowed to be caged. Basically, "cage free" is essential to chicken welfare, whereas a farm can easily shut its door on "free range" if that standard becomes unsustainable economically.
"Free range" and "cage free" claims only go so deep. Because Certified Humane and other independent, scientifically reviewed labeling programs, such as American Humane Certified and Animal Welfare Approved, actively review multiple factors related to safety and health of animals, their labels are a better indication of humane conditions than any single-claim label.
These three organizations are accredited as certifiers by the Agriculture Marketing Service (AMS) of the USDA. "Our charge is to facilitate the marketing of products," says Craig Morris, AMS deputy administrator, "and we want to help consumers make sure that they get the kind of products that they're expecting, that the animals are treated the way they expect them to be treated."
Prasad anticipates future collaboration with AMS on the part of the three humane labeling groups, hoping that national standards can be set, and a single label be overseen by AMS, as has been done with the National Organic Program.
"Farmers will produce the food that is most in demand," Prasad reasons, "and although, currently, prices for humane products are higher, if there is a demand – as the survey indicates – they will become much more competitive with conventionally raised animals in factory-farm situations."
"We can't do it any other way," adds Cherney. "If an animal is not comfortable, if an animal is in distress, [then] they aren't going to be producing at their maximum."
1. Whole Foods Market
2. Wegman's Food Markets
3.Ruddick Corp. (Harris Teeter)
4. H.E. Butt Grocery Co. (Central Market, HEB)
5. Kroger Co. (tie)
Publix Super Markets Inc. (tie)
7. Hy-Vee Food Stores Inc.
8. Meijer Inc.
9. Safeway Inc. (tie)
Trader Joe's Co. (tie)
Source: World Society for Protection of Animals