The little woman behind a very big war
A Q&A with David S. Reynolds, the author of "Mightier than the Sword: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Battle for America," about Harriet Beecher Stowe's influence on the Civil War.
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It's not clear whether Lincoln ever said such a thing. Mythical or not, the words have that ring of truth like so many historical misquotes. But if the president didn't say it, he should have.
Stowe's greatest book, "Uncle Tom's Cabin," blended gripping narrative, humor and striking characters to expose the inhumanity of slavery. Many Americans would never forget the novel, which remained influential and tremendously popular for decades.
The novel later lost its reputation as a literary masterpiece, and the title character's name became an epithet for African-Americans who cozied up to white people. History left Stowe behind too, leaving photos of a stern-looking woman who looks like the last person you'd want to sit next to at a dinner party lest she start lecturing you about a humanitarian crisis somewhere.
That image misses the real Harriet Beecher Stowe, a woman who considered slavery a moral evil but also had a sense of humor. In fact, her daughter said they spent a delightful evening with President Lincoln, trying not to bust out laughing the entire time. (It's not clear exactly what was so funny, but it probably had more to do with presidential jokes than, say, a White House whoopie cushion.)
In his new book Mightier than the Sword: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Battle for America, City University of New York professor David S. Reynolds takes a look back at what's almost certainly the most influential American book in history. I asked Reynolds about Stowe's background, the impact of the novel, and the strange transformation of the meaning of Uncle Tom.
Q. What did she understand the most about slavery?
A: She understood that African Americans are human. That sounds pedestrian, but in that era, African Americans were perceived as subhuman, or different from whites. Her novel is all about how African Americans can be as loyal to their families and devoted to their homes, parents and children, and each other, as white people can. They also have the capacity to be religious, which to Harriet Beecher Stowe was very important. They weren't just beasts that could be whipped, chained, sexually exploited, and sometimes tortured. She made Americans feel the pain and agony that slaves were going through, made them feel the real humanity of black people in a way that nobody had done before.
Q: What else made her book so effective?
A: Before she wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin," she had written for popular magazines for 15 years, so she had a good sensitivity to what the popular audience wanted. It almost became part of her unconscious mind. When she wrote the novel, she produced these scenes that rang all these popular-culture bells for the audience of that time. The book became an international sensation as well and was translated into 16 languages and sold about 310,000 copies in America and at least 1.5 million abroad.
Q: What did she miss?
A: James Baldwin didn't like the novel, along with certain other African Americans in the 20th century. We're now schooled on literary naturalism and realism, and they tend to think that her black characters are too idealized and lack a certain humanity, that they don't have enough flaws.
My answer is that, at that time, she was considered rebellious and subversive for that reason. She could imagine them as being good and pious family members. But for the 20th century, these naturalistic writers wanted a grimier picture, a more realistic portrait.