The woman accused of helping to kill Abraham Lincoln
Historian Kate Clifford Larson talks about Mary Surratt, the Washington D.C. landlady accused of plotting to kill Lincoln and profiled in new movie "The Conspirator."
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She was part of the conspiracy, and when it comes to women as historical actors, they tend to be overlooked or their contributions discounted. It's the same with Mary.
Telling her story reminds us that even women can do very wicked things. She was a very smart, very capable woman who made a decision to help John Wilkes Booth, and as a result of that a president was killed. The trajectory of the end of the Civil War and Reconstruction – and the nature of how freedom was going to play out for four million formerly enslaved people – changed. She played a role in that, and we need to know about her.
Q. How did her gender play out in terms of her story?
Here's this middle-class woman who was running a boarding house. What a perfect front. No one's going to suspect her of doing anything wrong. It was a perfect cover, but she counted on that cover too much, and she did not anticipate that the power of what happened, the horror of what happened, overrode any kind of Victorian notions people had about women's roles in society. I believe she thought she'd get away with it, and figured there's no way they'd hang a woman, and she was wrong.
Q. What was unique about the trial of her and the other conspirators?
It was incredibly unfair. There's no question about that. There's no doubt that any of them were guilty, but the rules of evidence were stacked against them and everything the defense attorneys tried to do got overruled by the prosecution and judges.
Q. The family of Dr. Samuel Mudd, who was accused of being a Lincoln conspirator, has fought to clear his name. What about Surratt's descendants?
They are so quiet. They don't say anything. They have a very low profile, although there are quite a few of them.
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Q. Do you think justice was done in Surratt's case?
If they were going to hang any of them, she deserved to hang as well. She could have stopped it, she could have reported that Booth was up to kidnapping or killing, and she did not. It's uncomfortable, but that's the truth.
If you're in Maryland, consider dropping by the Surratt House Museum at Surratt's onetime home in the town of Clinton. Its website says it "presents a variety of programs and events, recapturing the history of mid-19th century life and focusing on the fascinating web of the Lincoln conspiracy."
Baltimore, meanwhile, is home to a cemetery that houses the Booth family plot. I took a walking tour of the graveyard a few years ago, and the guide told us that visitors like to put Lincoln head pennies into the "O"s in the family's name on the monument at the plot. (Yes, people are strange.)
To read more about the injustices of the trial of the Lincoln conspirators, check out "'They Have Killed Papa Dead!': The Road to Ford’s Theatre, Abraham Lincoln’s Murder, and the Rage for Vengeance," by Anthony Pitch. Also, James Swanson's action-packed bestseller "Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln’s Killer" tracks the escape of John Wilkes Booth, while "My Thoughts Be Bloody: The Bitter Rivalry Between Edwin and John Wilkes Booth that Led to an American Tragedy," by Nora Titone, explores the brother vs. brother rivalry in the Booth clan.
Randy Dotinga is a regular contributor to the Monitor's book section.