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Gravity's Engines

With 'Gravity's Engines,' Caleb Scharf establishes himself as one of the finest space storytellers.

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The paradox of black holes is that although being pulled into one would spell certain doom, they likely are responsible for the convergence of forces that gave Earth its miraculous positioning as a star-circling orb conducive to life as we know it.

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Fundamentally, what exactly is a black hole? As Scharf explains, it’s the ultimate expression of gravity. Black holes are not “things” so much as  “regions of spacetime” comprised of ultra-dense matter in which super-gravitational forces prevent everything, including light, from escaping. The more that a black hole consumes, the theory goes, the bigger it becomes.

While black holes are conceptual outgrowths of Albert Einstein’s theory of relatively, even Einstein had his doubts about whether black holes would actually exist. Scharf is among a bold generation of 21st-century physicists, versed in quantum mechanics, that have confirmed them from afar.

Black holes are believed to be created when stars burn themselves out and collapse unto themselves due to hyper-gravity, squishing their mass into super compactness. Their density then pulls in other objects around it, capable even of bending time as it inescapably dips over the event horizon.

Fortunately, it could be billions of years before our own sun, likely to produce merely a smallish black hole, falls into itself like a demolished building. But what about the big mama black hole that is continuously growing in the middle of the Milky Way?

In Scharf’s hands, it is heart-thumping to ponder. “Although we are relatively sheltered, a modest wash of radiation [projected by that black hole] out here on the galactic rim every few hundred thousands years could temporarily modify the atmospheric chemistry of a small rock planet,” Scharf says.

“Even small changes can have big consequences. A little more or less ozone, a little more or less watery precipitation, and the fortunes of a particular organism could take a turn for the better or worse.”

Is Scharf worried? Hardly, not any more than he is about the eventual collision of the Milky Way and its neighboring galaxy, Andromeda, in a few billion years.

"Gravity’s Engine," for the lay reader who gazes into the heavens, is enjoyable and eminently accessible because of the way Scharf translates concepts of astrophysics using easy-to-grasp metaphors.

The great value of "Gravity’s Engines" is that it pulls together most of the known black hole science. According to Scharf, there may be “hundreds of billions, perhaps trillions, of black holes scattered throughout the universe.”

With "Gravity’s Engines," Scharf, a Briton by birth, establishes his credentials as a fine cosmic storyteller, sharing company with a line of popular writers that extends from giant big thinker Stephen Hawking and the late Carl Sagan to noted physicist Brian Greene. What’s gut-wrenching is that for all that Scharf and his colleagues are able to discern, he admits they know very little, the least of which is why. What's tantalizing is that new insights, produced by a constellation of international colleagues, are being divined on a regular basis. 

Todd Wilkinson is a Monitor contributor.

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