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Where are all the charitable bequests?

Americans are very generous in life, with two-thirds giving to charity. But only 8 percent remember charities in their wills. One reason: federal tax cuts

By G. Jeffrey MacDonaldCorrespondent of The Christian Science Monitor / November 19, 2007

Advisers to charities have a troubling concern: as Americans prepare their wills, many seem to develop cold feet when it comes to providing for charitable causes.

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Only 8 percent of Americans have named a charity in their wills, according to a survey released earlier this year from Indiana University's Center on Philanthropy. That's in spite of the fact that Americans are a generous lot: Two out of every 3 have given to charity in recent years, according to the same survey.

Charitable bequests are also becoming more rare. From 1998 to 2006, the estimated yearly number of people who left money to charity has dropped from 17,587 to 9,522, according to Internal Revenue Service data. Over that period, fewer estates became subject to federal tax as the threshold for taxable estates rose from $625,000 in 1998 to $2 million in 2006.

Faced with this situation, observers involved in the research are calling on nonprofits and their supporters to be more proactive. In their view, both groups are missing an opportunity to make sure an individual's resources reflect his or her deepest values long after they pass on.

"The hardest thing may be for individuals to figure out what they really, really care about and what they'd want to be supporting after their deaths," says Melissa Brown, associate director of research at the Center on Philanthropy. "But just because it's hard doesn't mean it shouldn't happen. Sometimes the hardest things we do are the most rewarding."

But other professionals are neither as shocked nor as dismayed as those who insist charities are missing the bequest boat. As they see it, donors aren't necessarily just waiting to be asked for a bequest gift. Individuals may instead be taking steps, however self-interestedly, to accomplish goals – both for this life and beyond – that reflect their values.

"Charities may be more optimistic than is appropriate," says Steve Hartnett, associate director of education for the American Academy of Estate Planning Attor­neys, a professional association. "Most clients don't want to give to charity. They want it to go to their descendants."

Bequest giving, which added about $22 billion in 2006 according to Giving USA, represented 7.8 percent of the $294 billion that Americans gave overall last year. Though that's only a fraction of the nation's philanthropic pie, bequest giving is a key vehicle by which people fund charitable organizations.

"Over 80 percent of planned gifts are through wills," says Bruce Matthews, vice president of Campbell & Company, a Chicago-based consulting firm for nonprofit organizations and commissioner of the Center on Philanthropy survey. "You can tinker around all you want with charitable gift annuities and all this stuff, but the bottom line is most of it comes through wills. Nonprofit organizations need to start from that standpoint and establish good bequest programs."

Several factors, Ms. Brown says, help explain why so few Americans have written a charity into their wills. Surveys from recent years suggest fewer than half of all Americans have any will whatsoever. Plus, those with wills routinely make their first priority to provide for dependents and other family members. Since all but the wealthiest tend to worry that shifting circumstances over time could land their kin in need, Mr. Hartnett says, many hesitate to sign a legal document that earmarks funds for other purposes.