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Urban farms empower Africa

Aid providers in Congo and elsewhere are discovering that lessons in farming can succeed where food handouts have not.

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The project reported rapid results: After only three months, the percentage of families in the program who kept gardens increased from 54 to 73, and the amount of land each family planted more than doubled. At the beginning of the program, according to PPJ, 64 percent of the children in targeted households were malnourished. After five visits from Mama Bongisa, that number dropped to 20 percent. The gains continue.

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"So many times in Congo you start something and then it falls apart. That didn't happen here," says Larry Sthreshley. He and his wife, Inge, helped set up the PPJ garden project in the mid-1990s. "A critical mass of information gathers, and then you see neighbors helping neighbors," he adds.

From the backyard to the market

A drive through Kinshasa today shows some of these lasting results. Leafy green beds sit plush between cinder-block homes and shacks, on median strips, and along roads crowded with pollution-spitting taxi vans. According to Inge Sthreshley, many successful home gardeners eventually become market gardeners, offering their produce for sale.

Some people, such as Mulopo Wally, have even turned urban gardening into a full-fledged business. Mr. Wally gardens along one of Kinshasa's main arteries, in what used to be a vast, abandoned swath of weeds. Today, he has 300 beds of spinach, manioc, and other greens. A middleman who exports vegetables to Europe regularly buys up a dozen or more beds' worth of produce.

There are unique considerations when it comes to urban farming, Wally says: He can't grow crops that will get too tall, or else they will absorb too much pollution. Also, bandits might hide in the foliage. Better to keep the vegetables low and leafy.

When asked about the success of his business, he gives the half-defeated shrug characteristic of farmers across the world, and grumbles about the weather.

"We're OK," he says. "We do not get rich, but we're OK."

How a garden helped a child

After two years of positive results, larger aid organizations decided to get involved with the Presbyterian garden project. In 1997, the European Union started funding the project. Today, the UN's World Food Program is also partnering with the Kinshasa project.

The program was well established, when, in 1999, Lipepele rushed her severely malnourished 1-year-old to the local health clinic. There, volunteers with the gardens program evaluated Lipepele and her family's diet. They asked what sort of food the family could purchase. And then they began teaching Lipepele how to farm.

Lipepele and her husband took the vacant land next to their one-room home and planted sweet potatoes, which have highly nutritious leaves. Following the Mama Bongisa advice, they mounded the earth to get as much surface area as possible and to prevent Kinshasa's harsh rains from flooding the beds.

Soon they had enough crops to improve their diet; and after that they were able to sell the excess to buy caterpillars, fish, and other proteins.

Today, Lipepele has 24 planting beds – seven by her home and 17 between two rows of shacks a mile or so away. She is teaching some of her neighbors to farm.

"That woman who lives there, she just started gardening, too." Lipepele says, pointing across the dirt courtyard. She gives a quick grin. "She wanted to be like us."

She looks at the patches of raised earth, enriched with ground-up corncobs and select trash, and then gestures at her daughter, Jemima, who is now 8 years old and poised in a navy-and-white school uniform.

"Look at her," Lipepele says, smiling. "She's skinny, but she's nothing like she used to be. We are never hungry now."