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From Israeli jails, Hamas activists press middle way

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"The referendum might finish this crisis,'' said protester Mohaamad Sirhan Abu Eesa, a teacher from Deir Dibwan near Ramallah. "We might have a national unity government. We might even get the salaries.''

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Hamas has four centers of influence: Damascus, Gaza, the West Bank, and the prisons. Hamas's prisoner leadership wields an equally influential voice as politicians in Gaza and outside the Palestinian territories in setting movement policy, says Abdel Rahman Zaidan, who serves as public works minister in the all-Hamas cabinet.

In a political system caught between liberation movement and an embryonic sovereign government, time in an Israeli jail is a powerful résumé-builder for politicians. With thousands of Palestinians arrested by the Israeli army and border police over the five-year uprising, the detainees have prisoner-of-war status among Palestinians.

The prisoners agreement, signed May 11, included representatives from Hamas, Fatah and three other Palestinian factions. It calls for negotiations with Israel, limiting the Palestinian uprising to the West Bank, and for Islamist groups to join the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) - which would mean an implicit recognition of the peace accords with Israel.

Mr. Zaidan, who spent four years imprisoned by Israel, described the jail as an ivory tower for Palestinian militants, where activists from different backgrounds have enough time to reflect and mingle with one another.

"They are the think tanks of the factions. The prisoners have no other distractions, so they're dedicated to thinking, they're reading newspapers, and they're following every little incident,'' says Zaidan.

"Rival Palestinian groups are more understanding of each other than [they are] outside the prison. This closeness gives more chance for dialogue, interaction and exchange of ideas. This is very healthy. I know that some of my views and relationships with other people have been formed by these four years.''

The rift between Hamas prisoners and the outsiders reveals how geographic location often plays a role in determining whether Islamic militant leaders are more ideological or pragmatic.

"What we are seeing is three different levels of political positioning," Kuttab says. "The hardest of the hard-liners are the ones who are abroad in Syria, Khaled Meshal's group. Then you have more moderate, who are in power [in the Palestinian territories], and they are less radical. The most pragmatic are the prisoners.''

Hamas Minister of Prisoner Affairs Mohammed Abu Tir, who was released from jail after serving 25 years, said he knew the Hamas signatory to the prisoners' document, Sheikh Abdul Khaleq al-Natsheh from time spent together in prison.

"Even though I have reservations about the document, I trust him," Abu Tir says. "People inside jails live in a situation where they could never betray the principles on which their factions are based on.''

Nuha Musleh contributed reporting from Ramallah.