Guest workers vulnerable
President Bush touted the proposed new guest-worker program Monday. Critics slam the current program.
Eleven dollars and five cents per hour. It was more than Francisco Fernández Sánchez had ever made in all his years working as an electrician in Zacatecas, Mexico - and it was completely legal. A recruiter was in town taking down names of those interested. Mr. Fernandez signed up and waited. Two months later, he got a phone call.Skip to next paragraph
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That was how Fernández's journey to the US on a much-coveted guest worker visa began. But it would end badly less than a year later, with Fernández $500 poorer, humiliated, angry - and in the process of suing his former Florida employer in a federal court.
As US lawmakers gear up for more debate this week on whether to grow the guest worker program as part of a comprehensive immigration reform bill, immigrant-rights advocates warn of problems with the current guest-worker system. They point to widespread cheating and abuse of migrant workers that continues due largely to lack of US government oversight of corrupt firms, and say this should be addressed in any upcoming guest-worker legislation.
"It's crucial to establish guidelines for preventing abuses," says Robert Willis, a lawyer for the Farm Labor Organizing Committee, the union representing migrant farm workers. "If we allow guest workers to come work, we also need to treat them right," he says. "Just creating the program is not enough."
The proposed Senate bill calls for allowing illegal immigrants who have been in the US for five years or more to apply for a three-year guest-worker visa, which could be renewed if they paid a fine and passed a background check. Other would-be immigrants wishing to find work in the US would be able to apply for the same guest-worker visa, which in this case would be capped at 400,000 annually.
After six years, if these guest-worker visa holders demonstrate English proficiency and pay certain fines and back taxes, they could apply for permanent residency, the first step toward citizenship. This bill, if passed, would create the largest guest-worker program since the Bracero program brought 4.6 million Mexican agricultural workers into the country between 1942 and 1960.
President Bush touted this guest-worker program in California Monday.
Under the present system, the US Department of Labor (DOL), working together with Homeland Security, grants up to 66,000 non-agricultural (H2-B) guest-worker visas a year and an unlimited number of agricultural (H2-A) visas. These visas are valid for up to 364 days.
A full 75 percent of all guest worker visas - last year there were almost 120,000 in total - are given to Mexicans, say US officials.
Many of these guest workers attest to positive experiences: They make money legally, they get benefits, are treated well, and receive a ride home back to their families at the end of the job.
But Fernández's negative experience is not unique.
"Today, broken promises are the norm when it comes to guest worker visas. Despite pages of regulations, oversight is lacking, and workers are often cheated out of money and mistreated," says Greg Schell, a lawyer at the Migrants Farmworker Justice Project, a Florida-based legal advocacy group. Mr. Schell is filing a class-action suit on behalf of Fernández and 15 other guest workers.