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Russian government sets sights on 'subversion'

By Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor / June 1, 2005



MOSCOW

A creeping crackdown is underway in Russia as the Kremlin has accused nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) of spying, moved to restrict political parties, and is considering measures that would weaken its print media.

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Earlier this month Nikolai Patrushev, head of the state's FSB security service, charged that NGOs - including the US Peace Corps, the British Merlin medical relief foundation, and the Arab Red Crescent Society - were vehicles for "conducting intelligence operations under the guise of charity" activities. All the named groups issued angry denials.

Tough talk of limiting Russia's foreign-funded civil society, coupled with a new election law to limit the political field, does not represent a sudden shift, but rather a trend begun under President Vladimir Putin to tighten control over the country's press and public politics, experts say.

"We are returning to the Soviet system of governing, when all was officially under control, although in practice nothing was actually under control," says Dmitri Oreshkin, an expert with Merkator, an independent think tank. "The state being constructed through this process will be unitarian [have a single power center] and will, to a great extent, be an authoritarian state."

Individual NGOs have frequently been accused of spying by the FSB in the past, but Mr. Patrushev went further by alleging that even many think tanks were using legitimate educational exchanges and civil society projects to work for "regime change."

Demands by the security service chief that NGOs must be curbed are seen as an official reaction to recent popular revolts around Russia's periphery - Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan.

"To accuse NGOs of subversion is something new, and it is a sign the FSB is returning to the role of the former KGB," says Andrei Soldatov, editor of Agentura.ru, a website devoted to studying the intelligence services. "The FSB has recently reconstituted the KGB's 'anti-subversion' department. It is actively returning to old methods of surveillance over the whole society."

Many NGOs say the atmosphere is becoming chillier by the day and worry that a new law governing their activities, currently being drafted, could make life impossible. "International foundations are being actively pushed out of Russia," says Alexei Simonov, director of the Glasnost Foundation, an independent media watchdog. "Financing is becoming much harder; we already feel it."

Says Alexander Shuvalov, deputy director of Greenpeace-Russia: "We are being squeezed out of the mass media, and government agencies are actively thwarting our attempts to work. This is a continuation of policies we've felt for some years."

The new election law, passed in first reading by the Duma a week ago, has been planned since the terrorist attack on a school in Beslan last September. Experts say it will easily pass the needed two more readings in September. The law would prohibit coalitions of small parties, raising the threshold for entry into the Duma from 5 to 7 percent, making it easier for officials to disqualify candidates and ban independent observers from polling stations.

"The essence of these changes is to eliminate checks and balances and to distance citizens from real participation in the political process," says Nikolai Petrov, an expert with the Carnegie Center in Moscow.

Some experts suggest the Kremlin's goal is to ensure that only one or two big, officially approved parties will remain. "This is an attempt to create a one-party state," says Yury Levada, head of the Levada Center, an independent polling agency. "We are being pushed into the past, back to the state we previously inhabited."

Gleb Pavlovsky, who advises the Kremlin on political strategy, said this week that Russia's existing opposition parties are "useless" and that the Kremlin's goal will be to build a better opposition before the next Duma elections, slated for December 2007.

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