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Around the globe, new 'Silicon Valleys' emerge

As software jobs move to India and beyond, California could lose its footing as tech startup capital of the world.

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Design teams schedule meetings across countries, simultaneously involving employees in India, Japan, Boston, London, and here. "We don't have a headquarters," he says. "If I'm traveling to Japan, that's where the headquarters is."

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With his new 20-person research and design bureau in Delhi, his company can work 24 hours a day, splitting tasks between the US and India. Moreover, the Delhi bureau costs him about one-third of what it would cost him to set up a similar operation in Silicon Valley.

The consequence for Americans

That math, however, has sent American software engineers into unemployment lines. "We have definitely felt it," says Fadi Bishara of TechVenture, an outplacement firm in Menlo Park, Calif. "Three or four years ago, there was a tremendous demand on all levels of software developers... Now, 20 percent of the work that would normally be done by local people has been shifted [overseas]."

Software developer Wilson has had to refinance his house, put off buying a new car, and scale back the plans for his kids' education from pricey private colleges to state schools. Fortunately, he says, he has other skills to fall back on, or else he might have been truly tempted to pick up a plumber's wrench. "The plumbing hourly wage is about the same as a software engineer now, and they can't send plumbers overseas."

Yet Wilson also sees a change in Silicon Valley beyond his own situation.

He came here in 1995 because, as a techie, Silicon Valley was to him what Paris was to impressionists or Milan is to fashion design. For a half-century, Silicon Valley has been unique - a cauldron of pure capitalism.

Now, however, Silicon Valley's outsourcing is feeding an emerging class of tech hubs worldwide. In the not-too-distant future, he worries, Silicon Valley could lose its preeminent place.

"That sort of fantasy and luster will be gone," says Wilson. "The way it was, the

creative stuff was done here... But we're going to see more and more of that sent overseas. Why would you keep it here?"

A unique confluence

Entrepreneurs and venture capitalists don't deny that outsourcing will probably gather speed.

But many maintain that even in a world of truly global innovation, Silicon Valley remains a unique brew - bringing together world-class universities, massive quantities of money, perfect weather, and an almost kamikaze approach to capitalism that doesn't fear failure.

Bangalore, India's nascent Silicon Valley, "is a much more risk-averse culture," says Ravi Chirevolu, who travels to India for his job with Charter and Venture Capital in Palo Alto, Calif. "In Silicon Valley, it's sexy to be in a startup; In Bangalore it's always better to work at some company you've heard of."

The culture of taking risks in order to be at the forefront of innovation, he and others say, is central to what Silicon Valley is, and crucial to it remaining relevant in the future.

"Silicon Valley has some very unique aspects that make it the center of the high-value part of the entrepreneurial process," says Steve Bird of Focus Ventures in Palo Alto. "The real innovation is still happening here, and I expect that to continue."