It's 2 a.m. Do you know where your workers are?
The day before the first big snow of the season, the question on many people's minds in Massachusetts wasn't how many inches would fall, but how many snowplow drivers might sit idle. Contractors were locked in a battle with the state highway department. The sticking point: a new requirement that they take GPS cellphones along on their routes.Skip to next paragraph
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The phones - equipped to track location through a series of satellites known as the Global Positioning System - let highway staff monitor plowers' time on the job and whether they are driving at the optimal speed for laying down salt. Officials estimate the improved efficiency will save about $1.7 million a year.
Hundreds of plowers protested by sending the phones back. If they made mistakes logging their time on the phones, they worried, they'd lose out on pay. And they resented the implication that they waste tax dollars. People were saying, " 'It's time that these guys ... got out of the coffee shops,' " complains Fred Nava, a veteran plow driver from Kingston, Mass. "That is a slap in anybody's face."
Just before the snow fell on Dec. 5, contractors agreed to use the phones on a trial basis. But from the highway department's vantage point - one shared by a growing cadre of employers - there's no turning back from GPS.
Whether they're dispatching a fleet of garbage trucks or a team of bail-bond collectors, managers love the idea of knowing where their "assets" are. They can coordinate routes that arebased upon traffic data, offer customers a narrower time frame for delivery, and, yes, make sure mobile employees are actually on the job when they're supposed to be. The popularity of GPS in the workplace parallels its growth in the consumer realm: By 2006, according to some estimates, 4 out of 5 new vehicles will come equipped with the technology.
For workers, GPS can add convenience and security. But as the plowers' protest shows, close tracking can put a dent in morale. Privacy experts warn that employees may not realize how much they can be tracked, especially if they use a company cellphone or a vehicle with GPS during personal time.
"You can start with the assumption that a certain amount of surveillance is necessary ... but the question really becomes, when does it go too far?" says Frederick Lane, author of "The Naked Employee: How Technology Is Compromising Workplace Privacy." Public discussions of GPS and other monitoring tools aren't keeping pace, he says, "and in the hands of some managers - who are very concerned about efficiencies and profits and so forth - it becomes more punitive than helpful."
Mr. Lane suggests that a boss might jump to conclusions if employees stop at a hospital or a family-planning clinic during lunch hour. Or that workers will face pressure to take fewer bathroom breaks. If GPS is misused, mobile employees may feel trapped in a type of high-tech sweatshop.
UPS workers in the Teamsters union negotiated last year to make sure GPS data wouldn't be used in evaluations. But such protective efforts are rare. "Unions have not felt they've been in a position to fight this ... when they're really fighting over jobs and working conditions," Lane says. "But stuff is creeping into the workplace that unions really would object to if they had time."
Companies that sell mobile-resource management (MRM) technology counter that education and privacy policies would put workers at ease. "When sales groups were [first] deployed with pagers [and later, cellphones], they were out in the field thinking ... 'My boss can call me at any time and he expects me to call him back!' Now we wouldn't dream of working without them," says J.D. Fay, vice president of corporate affairs for At Road Inc. in Fremont, Calif.
Cable installers, construction crews, and school-bus fleets are among the 117,000 subscribers of At Road's MRM services. For about $40 a month, At Road provides a real-time view of vehicle locations and other data over a secure Internet site. In client testimonials, a landscaping company reported saving $300 a week, and a bail-bond collector said his employees feel better being tracked because they carry cash.