Angst from the underground
Neo-Nazi groups are spreading throughout Germany, garnering a new following at college-prep schools.
The intention of the flier received by the student-body president of the Elisabeth Gymnasium in the western German city of Mannheim last year was clear: "Stop the filling of our schools with foreigners," it urged. "Stop foreigner violence in our schools. The boat is full."Skip to next paragraph
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Other letters - disseminated, it was later discovered, by an organization related to the right-wing National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) - were also received by high schools in the nearby town of Ludwigshafen, which called on students to help halt immigration.
The letters also urged students to support "the freedom of opinion for all political groups and standpoints," a reference to ongoing efforts in Germany to ban radical right-wing groups.
While the recipients of the letters in Mannheim and Ludwigshafen promptly alerted the authorities, such open propaganda efforts signal a recent change in Germany's radical right-wing landscape.
Throughout most of the 1990s, right-wing youth groups and neo-Nazi gangs tended to be concentrated in Germany's lower-level high schools, known as Realschulen and Hauptschulen. They are now, according to observers of the scene, attempting to make headway in the university-track Gymnasiums and recently, especially in the states of former East Germany and in Berlin, they have been experiencing some success.
"It is a problem that is present in almost every school in Berlin," says Bianca Klose, head of the Mobile Consultation Program for the Center of Democratic Culture, a program that helps educate teachers and students alike about Germany's right-wing scene. "People say that it isn't as bad as it was three or four years ago. I disagree. I say the right extremists have just learned not to be so obvious. I would say the problem is growing."
While there are no statistics that focus exclusively on right-wing extremism within Germany's schools, the problem in German society at large is on the rise.
According to recently released statistics, more than 10,500 right-wing crimes were committed in 2002, up 5 percent from the previous year. And while the overwhelming majority of the crimes involved defacing synagogues or disseminating right-wing propaganda, 725 of the assaults were actually violent, including the brutal murder in the summer of 2002 of a 16-year-old German boy in the eastern town of Potzlow whose attackers mistakenly thought he was Jewish.
Within schools and youth groups, however, right-wing extremism is no longer represented by overtly violent, skinhead youths wearing Springer brand boots, bomber jackets, and pit-bull T-shirts. Rather, it is becoming subtler.
"Right-wing extremists have recognized that the open wearing of symbols attracts unwanted attention and are even, on occasion, illegal," Ms. Klose says. "Just a very well-cared for appearance and submission to a teacher's authority are a sign of rightist thinking. In fact, right-wing extremists are often teachers' favorite students."
For Matthias Adrian, this comes as no surprise. Until two years ago, Mr. Adrian, who's now in his late 20s, was an active member of the NPD and in charge of youth development for Hessen, a state in southwestern Germany. As a party member, he taught young NPD members to become involved in classroom discussions so that they might provide a counter to more tolerant voices.
He says the NPD also uses students who are already right-oriented to try to attract others into the group.